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FIGURE 10.7
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Drawing any shape.
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speci es an action to be taken. The second element provides a parameter associated with the action. Let s look at some examples. We can use the pair f , 20 to tell the robot to move forward 20 pixels. The pair t , 40 means turn 40 and p , Up tells the robot to put the pen Up. Based on these commands, what shape would this set of data draw
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Data SomeShape; p ,Down, f ,165, t ,-120, f ,58 Data SomeShape; t ,-60, f ,50, t ,-30, f ,100 Data SomeShape; p ,Up, f ,40
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Type the program in Fig. 10.7 and see what happens (don t type the line numbers). In Line 15 we calculate an index into the array SomeShape to retrieve the right pair of data. The outcome is that we can now say SomeShape[J] to obtain the command element of the pair and SomeShape[J 1] to retrieve the value element of the pair. Why this formula for J Remember that the rst element of the array is 0. So the elements 0 and 1 are the rst pair, 2 and 3 the second, 4 and 5 the third, and so on. Can you see a pattern We have 0, 2, 4, 6,... for the rst element of the pairs and 0 1, 2 1, 4 1, 6 1,... for the second. So if we are counting using a for-next loop using 1, 2, 3, 4,... then to get 0, 2, 4, 6,... we use the formula in Line 15. The if-then statements (Lines 16 18) are to make sure that the right command is executed. The limit for the for-next loop in Line 14 uses the function MaxDim() allowing the program to determine how many elements there are in the SomeShape array (see Sec. C.8). Since the data is in pairs, we divide the number of elements by two to calculate the number of pairs. If you replace the data in the Data statements on Lines 11 to 13 you can create any shape. You can have as many Data statements as you need to draw the shape, you are not limited to just the three in the program.
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10.2 ABC Robot
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In the program of Fig. 10.7 we developed a program that draws any shape given an array of data pairs. If we create shapes that are letters, we can give the robot the ability to write words. Remove Lines 11 to 13 from the program in Fig. 10.7 and in their place put the lines in Fig. 10.8 then run the program. The principles used in this program will be extended to develop a program that is able to accept a string and write it on the screen. The size of the font will be scalable and the robot will write the string at any angle. But before we can do any of this, we need to develop a font array and a way of making the robot write any letter individually. See Fig. 10.9 for a sample output of such a program. 10.2.1 THE SPECIFICATIONS First we will need an array of fonts. This array should be two-dimensional. For example we can have Dim Letters[27,100] (see Sec. C.7 for the Dim command). Why 27 We have 26 letters and we will allow for the space character (you can expand this to include other symbols like numbers if you wish). Why 100 This number is arbitrary for now. The number of instructions that will be needed to create each letter might be smaller than 50 or more. This number is set to the maximum likely to be needed. Remember the instructions are a pair of data (the command and its value) so we will need double the amount of instructions for the limit of the number of elements in the row. Once we have designed our fonts array we would have a better idea what limit will be necessary, and we will change the 100 to whatever is appropriate. Once the array Letters[ ] is created we can access the commands to draw the letter by indexing into the array in this manner: Letters[Letter_Number,n]. So how do we obtain the Letter_Number value In computers each letter has a code number called the ASCII code. We can obtain any character s ASCII code in RobotBASIC using the function
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t = "t" f = "f" p = "p" d = 10*sqrt(2) //--A data SomeShape; data SomeShape; data SomeShape; //--B data SomeShape; data SomeShape; data SomeShape; data SomeShape; //--C data SomeShape; data SomeShape; data SomeShape; data SomeShape;
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p,down, t,-90, f,50, t,45, f,d, t,45 f,40, t,45, f,d, t,45, f,20, t,90, f,60 f,-60, t,-90, f,30, t,-90, p, up, f,15 p,down, t,-90, f,60,t,90, f,50, t,45, f,d/2 t,45, f,15, t,45, f,d/2, t,45, f,50, f,-50 t,-135, f,d, t,45, f,20, t,45, f,d/2, t,45 f,55, p,up, f,-60, t,180, f,15 t,-90, f,10, p,down, f,40, t,45, f,d, t,45, f,40 t,45, f,d, t,45, p,up, f,40, t,45, p,down, f,d t,45, f,40, t,45, f,d, p,up, f,-d, t,-45 t,180, f,80
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