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FIGURE 12.10
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Using the GPS to face the goal and check if the robot is close.
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COMPLEX COMPOUND BEHAVIORS
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12.4 Summary
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In this chapter you have: Learned how to make the robot reach a goal despite obstacles in the way. Learned that navigating from one place to another can be achieved by the use of simple instruments and methods [rBeacon()] or by the use of more sophisticated devices (rGps) Learned how simple behaviors can be linked together to form more complex behaviors. Seen how previously developed routines can be slightly modi ed and incorporated with other routines to achieve new behaviors and solve new challenges. Seen how randomness can be used to create unusual environments. Learned why randomness should play a role in many robot behaviors. Now, try to do the exercises in the next section.
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12.5 Exercises
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1. The routine in Fig. 12.4 makes the robot always rotate clockwise when trying to face
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the beacon. As we have set up the simulation, we know that the beacon should generally be east of the robot. The robot would look much more intelligent if it could decide which way to turn based on its current compass heading. For example, if the robot s current heading is between 0 and 180 it should turn left when looking for the beacon. Otherwise it should turn right. Even if you implement this idea successfully, the robot may still turn the wrong way sometimes, but it will work better most of the time. Add this behavior to the routine in Fig. 12.4. 2. Change the subroutine FindBeacon in Figs. 12.1 or 12.8 so that it re ects the algorithm suggested at the beginning of Sec. 12.2. Decide through experimentation if the robot should perform a xed number of attempts in succession using the same wall-following direction and then switch direction for the next set of attempts, or if it should decide randomly which way to follow every time its movement is blocked. Another way to decide on the direction is to consider how the robot is approaching the object. If it is to the right then follow to the right and vice versa. Another alternative would be to use the relative position of the beacon as a deciding factor. 3. In the code of this chapter there was a lot of use of the color of the beacon (red) in many lines of the code. If we desire to change the color of the beacon to, say yellow, how many lines would have to be changed Using the editor you can nd and replace all occurrences of red with yellow to accomplish the task. However, it is much better programming practice to set a variable at the top of the program to say BeaconColor Red, and then instead of using the word red in the program code use this variable. This way when you want to change the color you just change one line of code in one place to assure that all lines are changed as desired. This concept applies to any other
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LOCATING A GOAL
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usage of constants in your programs. Change the code in this chapter to do this. Parameters that affect the algorithm s responses should be placed in variables at the top of the program. Use these variables in the body of the program in place of the literal numbers. This way you can experiment with different parameters without having to search for them in the body of the program. Do this with the various parameters used in this chapter (an example is the parameters in CheckFound).
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CHAPTER
CHARGING THE BATTERY
o mechanical or electrical device can function without some form of energy to power it. The sensors, motors, and computers in robots are mechanical, electrical, and electronic devices that need power to function. There are many ways an autonomous mobile robot can be powered to be able to do its work: An engine that runs on some form of fuel (gasoline, hydrogen, propane, etc.) can generate the mechanical motive force to propel the robot, and also generate electricity for powering the numerous electronics. This kind of robot would only be suitable outdoors where the noise and exhaust fumes would do no harm. However, the fuel supply would have to be replenished sooner or later. An umbilical cord that connects the robot to a power source and even a central computer is a possible solution, however, this limits the robot s ability to be autonomous and the cord can create problems. Solar energy, in combination with a battery to provide the power for electrical motors and all the electronics, is de nitely an ideal solution. This solution is used on robots like the Mars Rover. With this powering method the robot is able to move around forever and would never need to seek a recharging station. However, this solution can become expensive and we may need a hefty solar panel and access to effective light energy (the sun or bright lights). The standard method for most cases is a rechargeable battery that powers all the motors and electronics. This battery may be lead-acid, lithium-ion, or any other type that provides a high energy to weight ratio. No matter how ef cient these battery types are, they still need to be recharged sooner or later from a source of electrical energy.
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