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14.3 A Minimized Randomness Solution
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In the previous sections the robot was not given any ability to decide if it has already tried a certain path. When a decision to turn was made, no consideration was given to whether that direction had already been tried. Without this kind of decision-making ability the robot will sometimes retrace the same dead-end route repeatedly; only chance would make it take the correct path (which may take a long time). An array can be used to store the coordinates of the position of the robot every time it makes a turning decision along with a cumulative value to indicate what decisions it has made. This array can be used every time the robot is over the same spot so that the robot can give more preference to the direction not tried previously. This increases the possibility that the robot will take the correct path. This section presents an implementation of this strategy.
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NEGOTIATING A MAZE
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14.3.1 A CORRIDOR MAZE As mentioned at the beginning of the chapter, there are many types of mazes, so in order to experience how to program the robot in a different kind of maze we will implement the behavior discussed above using a randomly generated corridor maze. Different sensors will have to be used, and different logic for moving the robot will be applied, but the principles involved in solving the maze and the logic of handling the elimination of the previously tried paths will be the same regardless of the type of maze used. The algorithm developed in this section will negotiate the maze the rst time taking turns and trying paths while keeping track of which paths lead to dead ends. Once the robot nds the exit, it will be placed back at the beginning to try again. However, this time through the maze, the robot will utilize the information obtained on its rst run to avoid all the dead-ends. A program that implements this strategy is shown in Fig. 14.5. A sample screen shot of the programs output is shown in Fig. 14.6.
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14.3.2 THE PROGRAM The main program calls all the subroutines in turn as needed. The subroutine DisplayInstructions is the same as seen before, but with different instruction strings. All the other routines are discussed below.
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14.3.3 GENERATING THE MAZE The PlotMaze subroutine in Fig. 14.5 generates a maze with only one path to the goal. Unlike many maze algorithms, it creates cells that are potentially open on all four sides, which results in a more challenging maze. This routine makes use of the DrawPiece subroutine to draw a four-cell combination with a random wall. These four-cell combinations are then connected by randomly created doors. 14.3.4 SOLVING THE MAZE Each time the robot moves to a new cell in the maze, it will rst count the number of exits it senses from that cell. There are a maximum of three ways: left, forward, and right (we don t count the way the robot entered). The dimensions of the maze were selected so that the infrared sensors can be easily used to determine where the walls are. In addition to counting the number of exits in the cell (the variable cnt), the robot will also ll the variable dir with a value that indicates the direction of the exits. Figure 14.7 shows how the exits are indicated. Once the values for dir and cnt are formed the robot has some choices to make. If there is only one exit from the cell, then it takes that exit. If the cell has multiple exits then the robot will check to see if it has visited this cell before (how this is done will be discussed below). If this cell has not been visited, then we save all the information needed later if the cell is revisited (how this is done will be discussed shortly). After saving the data, the robot will try one of the exits. It will always try left rst, then forward, and nally right (assuming each are available).
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