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Secondary batteries are rechargeable. The most common rechargeable batteries are NiCds and lead-acid. We will start with NiCd batteries.
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One disadvantage to NiCd batteries is that they have a lower voltage, 1.2 V per cell. So a C cell battery will deliver about 1.2 V instead of 1.5 V. The effect becomes more pronounced when using multiple cells. For instance, a 9V NiCd battery made from six NiCd batteries will deliver approximately 7.2 V. Automotive lead-acid batteries are rechargeable but are not suitable for robotics. The reason is that automotive batteries are not designed to be completely discharged (run down) before being recharged. These batteries can supply high currents for short periods of time (car starting) and need to be recharged almost immediately. Completely discharging the electric power a rechargeable battery contains before recharging the battery is called deep cycle. There are deep-cycle lead-acid batteries available, mostly because of the solar power industry, but you will find these batteries carry a higher price tag. When building robotic systems, you should use deep-cycle rechargeable batteries. Secondary batteries, while initially more expensive, are cheaper in the long run. Typically secondary batteries can be recharged 200 to 1000 times. In many cases a simple recharging circuit can be built into the robot so that it becomes unnecessary to remove batteries for charging. Rating secondary batteries NiCd NiCd batteries and sealed lead-acid batteries are the most common rechargeables, with NiCd batteries being more popular. Both types of batteries have lower energy densities than primary batteries. NiCd batteries only provide 1.2V per cell, in comparison to primary batteries which provide 1.5V per cell. Manufacturers claim that NiCd batteries are good for 200 to 1000 charge-recharge cycles. However, NiCd batteries will die fast if they aren t recharged properly. The life expectancy of NiCd batteries is 2 to 4 years. Without use, a fully charged NiCd battery will lose its charge in 30 to 60 days. NiCd batteries are designed to be recharged at 10 percent of their rated capacity. This means that if a particular NiCd battery is rated at 1 Ah, it is safe to recharge the battery at 100 mA (1 A/10 100 mA). The terminology used to describe the above recommended recharge rate is C/10. NiCd batteries are designed to be charged using a constant current at the C/10 rates. Because of inefficiencies, it is necessary to charge
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the battery for 14 h to get a full charge. While manufacturers claim that it is OK to overcharge NiCd batteries at the C/10 rate, most engineers recommend switching over to a trickle charge after the initial 14 h at C/10. A trickle charge is usually rated at C/30, or 1/30 of the battery s capacity. A trickle charge for our 1-Ah battery would be around 33 mA (1 A/30 33.3 mA). Memory effect A disadvantage to NiCd batteries is the memory effect. If one repeatedly recharges a NiCd battery before it has completely discharged, the battery forms a memory at that recharge level. It then becomes difficult to discharge the battery past that remembered level. Obviously this can severely limit the battery s capacity. To correct that problem the battery must be completely discharged, by leaving a load connected to the battery for several hours. Once the battery is complete discharged, it can be charged normally and will function properly. Lead-acid Gelled-electrolyte battery cells (gel-cells) are similar to automotive batteries. They are sealed, maintenance-free, leadacid batteries. They don t make gel-cells in the familiar D, C, AA, AAA, or 9V battery cases. Gel-cells are typically larger and may be used in larger robots.
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Gel-cells are available in numerous voltage ratings, from 2V to 24V, and current capacities. These batteries may be charged with a current-limited constant voltage or a constant current like NiCd batteries. Typically to charge a gel-cell, one applies a fixed 2.3V to 2.6V per cell. Initially the battery will draw a high current that tapers down as it charges. When fully charged, the battery need only draw a trickle charge (approximately C/500) to maintain itself in a fully charged state. Gel-cell batteries vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. To safely recharge a gel-cell, you should check the manufacturer s recommendation. In general, a simple charging device can be made using an LM317 voltage regulator. A fixed voltage (2.3V per cell), constant current C/10 is applied to the battery. When the battery reaches a full charge, the constant current source is removed and a regulated voltage is applied. Many gel-cell batteries do not like to be deep cycled. Therefore it becomes necessary to monitor battery voltage under load. When the battery voltage drops by a specified amount (check the manufacturer s data sheet), it needs to be charged.
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