vb.net symbol.barcode.reader Schematic of infrared transmitter in Android

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5.11 Schematic of infrared transmitter
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Receiver Module 1 GND 2 Vcc 3 Output NPN Output
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5.12 Schematic of infrared receiver
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this in a simple collision detector, there is no need to modulate the 40-kHz signal. Infrared receiver Figure 5.12 is a schematic of the infrared receiver. The receiver module is an Everlite IRM-8420. The center frequency is 37.9 kHz with a bandwidth of 3 kHz ( 1.5 kHz). The output is active low. This means that when the receiver module detects the signal, the output drops to ground. The output is equivalent to an open collector of an NPN transistor (see the insert of Fig. 5.12). The output can sink sufficient current to light an LED. In the test circuit the LED will light when the module is receiving the signal.
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Tuning the transmitter Set up the infrared diode and receiver module next to one another facing in the same direction. The LED must be completely encased in a tube of some sort that only permits the infrared light to leave from the front of the LED. Failure to do this will make using this setup impossible. Note that some plastic materials while opaque to visible light are completely transparent to infrared light. Place a white card about 3 in front of the transmitter and receiver. Turn on the circuit. Adjust R1 until the receiver s LED turns on. Then remove the white card. The receiver s LED should go off. If it doesn t, the infrared LED on the transmitter may be leaking light from the side and activating the receiver. Once the unit is working properly, the circuit can be fine-tuned to detect objects at a greater distance. Move the white card back in front of the transmitter and receiver until it just triggers the LED to turn on. Adjust the potentiometer (slightly) on the transmitter so that the LED turns on completely. Keep in mind that it may not be advantageous for the robot to detect objects and/or collisions that are too far away.
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DTMF IR communication/remote control system
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Other authors have detailed the use of IR transmitters for communication and remote control. Typically the IR transmitter is modulated at a particular frequency and the receiver unit utilizes a 567 phaselocked loop (PLL) integrated circuit (IC). While this works, one must match and tune each transmitter-receiver pair. There is an acceptable way to work around this. Integrated circuit chips designed and manufactured for the telecommunications industry are readily available. These inexpensive chips are capable of transmitting and receiving 16 distinct signals, no tuning required. By coupling these chips to standard IR components, an IR remote communication/control system can be implemented.
DTMF
The dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) signal was originally developed just over 25 years ago. This was before the U.S. government forced Bell Telephone to break up, allowing the company to expand into other markets. DTMF is commonly known as touch-tone dialing. The standard DTMF signal is composed of two audio tones generated from a group of eight possible tone frequencies. The eight frequencies are divided into two equal groups, a low-frequency
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group and a high-frequency group (see Table 5.2). The DTMF signal is an algebraic sum of two tone frequencies, one tone from each frequency group (see Figs. 5.13 through 5.15). If we do the math, we see that there are 4 4 16 possible combinations.
I Table 5.2
Pin# Row# or column# Frequency, Hz
Low-frequency group
R1 R2 R3 R4 Row 0 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 697 770 852 941
High-frequency group
C1 C2 C3 C4 Column 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 1209 1336 1477 1633
5.13 Low-frequency tone waveform
5.14 High-frequency tone waveform
5.15 Algebraic sum of low and high frequencies (DTMF)
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5.16 4
4 keypad matrix showing individual DTMF frequencies
The low frequencies (R1 to R4) are referred to as the row group. The high frequencies (C1 to C4) are referred to as the column group. DTMF encoding Any combination of frequencies can be obtained using a 4 4 matrix of switches or keypad (see Fig. 5.16). Remember we are borrowing this technology from the telephone industry; it has been designed for optimum efficiency for less-than-perfect telephone lines. Standard touch-tone telephones use a 3 4 keypad matrix. This switch matrix provides coding for all the row frequencies and only three column frequencies (see Fig. 5.17). A 3 4 keypad matrix is more readily available and has been used with all the circuits described here. Not all telephone keypads are made the same; therefore, some keypads on the market will not be suitable in these circuits. For instance, some keypads have different internal switch wiring or include proprietary ICs. So if you try another keypad, keep that in mind if the circuit fails to operate properly. Building a DTMF encoder is simple (see Fig. 5.18). The circuit only requires a keypad, crystal, and 5089 IC. The pin out of the
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