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Ultrasonic receiver section
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The ultrasonic receiver section (see Fig. 5.35) is used to fine-tune the transmitter. The ultrasonic transducers resonate at 40 kHz. If the resonant frequency varies too much ( 750 Hz), the performance of the transducers degrades rapidly. Fine-tuning the transmitter for optimum resonance frequency is not difficult provided you follow the procedure outlined. The only piece of equipment needed is a volt-ohm milliammeter (VOM) capable of reading 2 VDC.
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R4 1Meg
.1 F 16V
Tuning Test Circuits
Vcc 220 4.7 K R4 R5
2 +
CMOS Comparator
U1 = CMOS Op-amp Vcc = 5 Vac
Signal out 220 220
Input
* Submini LED
5.35 Ultrasonic receiver circuit
Because the transducers have a limited bandwidth (resonant at or around 40 kHz), it is unnecessary to add a PLL (LM567) to the circuit. The transducers naturally reject off-frequency sound. The receiver section uses a CMOS op-amp. The op-amp is an 8-pin dip that follows the same pin out as the universal 741 op-amp. (Do not substitute a 741 op-amp.) The op-amp is configured as an inverting amplifier with a gain of approximately 22.
Ultrasonic transmitter section
The ultrasonic transmitter (see Fig. 5.36) is built around a CMOS 555 timer set up in astable mode. R2 is a PC-mounted 4.7K-ohm potentiometer and is used to adjust the frequency output.
five
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Tuning the transmitter Set up the ultrasonic transducers so that they are directly facing one another about 4 to 5 apart (see Fig. 5.37). Connect the VOM to the circuit as shown in the insert in Fig. 5.35. (Leave the comparator section off.) Set the VOM to read volts DC. You will need to read about 2 V; set the range on the VOM accordingly. Turn on both circuits. Adjust R2 of the transmitter so that you obtain the peak voltage output shown on the voltmeter. This should read about 2 VDC. Adjusting the CMOS comparator After tuning the transmitter, we need to set the receiver s comparator circuit. Disconnect the VOM from the receiver section and connect the CMOS comparator. Rearrange the transducers so that they are lying side by side about half an inch apart facing in the same direction. Place a flat-sided solid object about 3 in front
Vcc 1K R1
7 6 2 1
R3 220
210222 4.7K R2 555
Ultrasonic Transducer
.0047 F
Vcc = 5Volts
* Use CMOS 555 Timer
5.36 Ultrasonic transmitter circuit
Transmitter Circuit
Voltme
Receiver Circuit
4 5"
5.37 Ultrasonic test setup
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Sensors
of the transducers. Turn on the receiver and transmitter circuits and adjust R5 on the receiver circuit so that the subminiature LED just lights. To test the circuit, remove the solid object from the front of the transducers; the LED should turn off. Fine-tune the circuit by placing the solid object 5 to 6 in front of the transducers and readjust R5 until the LED just lights. Note that the receiver is angle sensitive. If the object is held at an acute angle, the ultrasonic sound is reflected away from the receiver. The angles become less critical as the object gets closer to the transducers. The circuit easily detects solid objects up to 8 away from the transducers. Greater distances can be detected, but as mentioned earlier they become angle sensitive. I have the transducers set perpendicularly. You may angle the transducers slightly to obtain different ranging effects. The circuit provides a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) high signal that is indicated by the lit LED whenever the circuit detects an obstacle 6 away. The TTL signal may be read directly by a neural net or microcontroller.
Arranging the ultrasonic sensors
The obvious uses for the ultrasonic system are side (left and right), front, and back obstacle detection. Another use that may not be as obvious is ground detection. If the ultrasonic sensor faces forward and is pointed downward, the sensor will read the ground in front of the robot. If the robot approaches a cliff or stair, the normally high signal (LED lit) goes low informing the CPU to stop.
Touch and pressure
The fidelity of the human sense of touch has not been remotely approached in robotics. However, there are a few simple sensors that can be used to detect touch and pressure. Touch sensors are commonly to detect bumps in the robot s path and to allow the robot to avoid collisions. More sophisticated touch and pressure sensors are used on robotic hands and arms. The sensors allow the robotic hand to grip with enough force to lift an object without crushing it. A simple touch or pressure sensor can be made from electrostatic (also called conductive) foam. This is the same foam ICs are
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