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6.29 Electrical function of a CdS photoresistive cell
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also accurate in classifying height. Why would one choose a fuzzy logic method over a digitized model function The fuzzy logic method has simplified mathematics and learning functions. To implement fuzzy logic in a PIC microcontroller, one assigns a numeric range to a group. This is what we will do in our next project.
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Building a fuzzy logic light tracker
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The project we will build now is a fuzzy logic light tracker. The tracker follows a light source using fuzzy logic. The sensors needed for the tracker are two CdS photocells. These photocells are light-sensitive resistors (see Fig. 6.29). The resistance varies in proportion to the light intensity falling on the surface of the photocell. In complete darkness the cell produces its greatest resistance. There are many types of CdS cells on the market. One chooses a particular cell based on its dark resistance and light saturation resistance. The term light saturation refers to the state where increasing the light intensity to the CdS will not decrease its resistance any further. It is saturated. The CdS cell I used has approximately 100K-ohms resistance in complete darkness and 500 ohms of resistance when totally saturated with light. Under ambient light, resistance varies between 2.5K and 10K ohms. This project requires two CdS cells. Test each cell separately. There may be an in-group variance that may change the scale factor used in each cell. In this project, I used a 0.022- F capacitor, with the scale parameter set at 255 for both cells in the Pot command. The schematic is shown in Fig. 6.30. The CdS cells are connected to port B, pins 2 and 3 (physical pin numbers 8 and 9). The photocells
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6.30 Schematic of light tracker circuit
are mounted on a small piece of wood or plastic (see Fig. 6.31). Two small holes are drilled for each CdS cell for the wire leads to pass through. Longer wires are soldered onto these wires and connected to the PIC microcontroller. One 3 32 to 1 8 hole is drilled for the gearbox motor s shaft. The sensor array is glued to the gearbox motor shaft (see Fig. 6.32).
6.31 Construction on sensor array
6.32 Photograph of sensor array on gearbox motor
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6.33 Function of sensor array and pinpoint light source
The operation of the tracker is shown in Fig. 6.33. When both sensors are equally illuminated, their respective resistances are approximately the same. As long as each sensor is within 10 points of the other, the PIC program sees them as equal and doesn t initiate movement. This provides a group range of 20 points. This group range is the fuzzy part in fuzzy logic. When either sensor falls in shadow, its resistance increases beyond our range and the PIC microcontroller activates the motor to bring both sensors under even illumination. DC motor control The sun tracker uses a gearbox motor to rotate the sensor array toward the light source (see Fig. 6.34). The gearbox motor shown has a 4000:1 ratio. The shaft spins approximately 1 revolution per minute (rpm). You need a suitable slow motor (gearbox) to turn the sensor array. The sensor array is attached (glued) to the shaft of the gearbox motor. The gearbox motor can rotate the sensor array clockwise
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6.34 Photograph of finished light tracker projects
(CW) and counterclockwise (CCW), depending upon the direction of current flowing through the motor. To rotate the shaft (and sensor array) CW and CCW, we need a way to reverse current going to the motor. We will use what is known as an H-bridge. An H-bridge uses four transistors (see Fig. 6.35). Consider each transistor as a simple on/off switch as shown in the top portion of the drawing. It s called an H-bridge because the transistors (switches) are arranged in an H-type pattern. When switches SW1 and SW4 are closed, the motor rotates in one direction. When switches SW2 and SW3 are closed, the motor rotates in the opposite direction. When the switches are opened, the motor is stopped. The PIC microcontroller controls the H-bridge made of four TIP 120 Darlington NPN transistors; four 1N514 diodes; and two 10Kohm, 1 4-watt (W) resistors. Pin 0 is connected to transistors Q1 and Q4. Pin 1 is connected to transistors Q3 and Q4. Using either pin 0 or 1, the proper transistors are turned on and off to achieve CW or CCW rotation. The microcontroller can stop, rotate CW, or rotate CCW, depending upon the reading from the sensor array. Make sure the 10K-ohm resistors are placed properly or the Hbridge will not function. The TIP 120 Darlington transistors are drawn in the schematic as standard NPN transistors. Many H-bridge circuit designs use PNP transistors on the high side of the H-bridge. The on resistance of PNP transistors is higher than that of NPN transistors. So in using NPN transistors exclusively in our H-bridge, we achieve a little higher efficiency.
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