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Aluminum bars, machine screws, tubing, and compression springs are available in most well-stocked hardware stores. Servo motors may be purchased at hobby shops or electronic distributors. Electronic components may be purchased from Radio Shack, Images Company, Jameco Electronics, or JDR Electronics. PIC microcontroller and front drive wheel may be purchased at Images Company. Images Company 39 Seneca Loop Staten Island, NY 10314 (718) 698-8305 Jameco 1355 Shoreway Rd. Belmont, CA 94002 (650) 592-8097 JDR 1850 South 10 St. San Jose, CA 95112 (800) 538-5005
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Building an intelligent photovore robot
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Let s see if we can create what may appear as intelligent behavior in a photovore robot. In Chap. 6 we programmed a photoresistive light tracking system. The tracking system locked onto a light source and tracked it. When we placed the same tracking system on a copy of Walter s tortoise robot, it directed the robot toward a light source. This steering behavior can be considered the first stimulus-response layer. The program illustrates how the rule-based microcontrollers can simulate neural functions. For the sake of an example, let s now design a neural circuit that performs the same function without any rule-based intelligence. Figure 8.19 uses an 8-pin dip single-voltage-supply dual operational amplifier (op-amp). The op-amps are configured as comparators. Comparators were covered more fully in Chap. 5. If you have any questions about Fig. 8.19, review Chap. 5. Two CdS photoresistors are wired in series forming a voltage divider. The output of the
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8.19 Dual op-amp neural comparator circuit
photoresistor voltage divider is fed into the inverting input of one op-amp and the noninverting input of the other op-amp.
Two other voltage dividers are needed. They are symmetric but opposite. One voltage divider has a 3.9K-ohm resistor connected to Vcc and a 4.7K-ohm resistor connected to ground. The second voltage divider uses the same value resistors, in opposite positions. When both photoresistors are evenly illuminated, neither LED is lit. Cover one or the other photoresistor and the corresponding LED will light. Each op-amp acts like a simple electronic neuron. When the electrical stimulus falls above or below (depending upon which op-amp we re talking about) a threshold (determined by the 3.9K-ohm and 4.7K-ohm voltage dividers), the neuron fires. The firing of the neuron (or outputs of the op-amp) can be used to turn on a DC motor using an NPN transistor (see Fig. 8.20). The DC motors in turn provide movement and direction for the photovore robot. To create a simple photovore robot, a chassis is designed that has two gearbox DC motors (see Fig. 8.21). When both motors are powered, the robot moves forward in a straight line. When one motor is turned off, the motor that still receives power will turn the robot left or right. For our photovore robot, we need both motors to be powered when the two photoresistors are evenly illuminated. Running the
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outputs of each op-amp into an inverting buffer located just before the NPN transistor accomplishes this task (see Fig. 8.22).
Behavior
When one photoresistor receives less light than the other, the corresponding motor will turn off, allowing the motor that s still powered to turn the robot toward the light source. When the robot turns so that both photoresistors are again evenly illuminated, both motors turn on, allowing the robot to travel toward the light source.
Vcc 4.7K NPN TIP120
Vcc M
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8.20 Neural comparator DC motor control circuit
Photo Sensors Wheel
Electronics
Gearbox Motors
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8.21 Outline diagram of photovore robot
%%%%%%%% ############# Team LRN Behavioral-based robotics, neural networks, nervous nets, and subsumption architecture
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8.22 Neural comparator DC motor control circuit with inverters
Light avoidance
If we crisscross the outputs of the op-amps to the motors, the behavior reverses. Instead of moving toward a light source the robot now avoids light and seeks shelter.
Adding behavior (feeding)
We can add behavior to the photovore by adding another stimulusresponse layer (see Fig. 8.23). This will be another light-activated comparator circuit that facilitates feeding. Comparators were covered more fully in Chap. 5. If you have any questions about Fig. 8.23, go back to that chapter. The second layer is placed on top of the first layer. When the light intensity is great enough, this threshold detector cuts power to the first layer and the motor drive system. If we place a number of photovoltaic cells and a diode, the electric power generated from the photovoltaics can trickle charge a nickelcadmium (NiCd) power pack (Vcc). Let s call this function feeding.
Still more behavior (resting)
We don t want our photovore traveling around in the dark wasting precious energy. So let s add another layer. The third layer is another light threshold detector (see Fig. 8.24). This detector cuts power to the first layer, motor drive system, and second layer in darkness
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