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It is possible to double the resolution of some stepper motors by a process known as half stepping. The process is illustrated in Fig. 10.4. In position I, the motor starts with the upper electromagnet switched on, as before. In position II the electromagnet to the right is switched on while keeping power to the upper coil on. Since both coils are on, the rotor is equally attracted to both electromagnets and positions itself in between both positions (a half
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10.3 Full stepping
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10.4 Half stepping ten
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step). In position III the upper electromagnet is switched off and the rotor completes one step. Although I am only showing one half step, the motor can be half stepped through the entire rotation.
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Other types of stepper motors
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There are four-wire stepper motors. These stepper motors are called bipolar and have two coils, with a pair of leads to each coil. Although the circuitry of this stepper motor is simpler than the one we are using, it requires a more complex driving circuit. The circuit must be able to reverse the current flow in the coils after it steps.
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The stepper motor illustrated rotated 90 degrees per step. Realworld stepper motors employ a series of mini-poles on the stator and rotor. The mini-poles reduce the degrees per step and improve the resolution of the stepper motor. Although the drawing in Fig. 10.5 appears more complex, its operation is identical to the previous illustrations shown in Figs. 10.3 and 10.4. The rotor in Fig. 10.5 is turning in a CW rotation. In the first position the north pole of the permanent magnet on the rotor is aligned with the south pole of the electromagnet on the stator. Notice that there are multiple positions that are all lined up. In the second position the electromagnet is switched off and the coil to its immediate left is switched on. This causes the rotor to rotate CW by a precise amount. It continues in this same manner for all the steps. After eight steps, the sequence of electric pulses would start to repeat. Half stepping with the multipole position is identical to the half step described before. Figure 10.6 is an electric equivalent circuit of a unipolar stepper motor. The stepper motor has six wires coming out from the casing.
10.5 Multipole operation
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Read Resistance Values to Determine Wire Setup
10.6 Schematic of six-wire unipolar stepper motor
We can see from Fig. 10.6 that three leads go to each half of the coil windings and that the coil windings are connected in pairs. If you just picked this stepper motor and didn t know anything about it, the simplest way to analyze it would be to check the electrical resistance between the leads. By making a table of the wire colors and resistances measured between the leads you would quickly find which wires were connected to which coils. (In some cases a unipolar stepper motor will only have five wires coming out of it. In this case the center taps of the coils are wired together.) The motor we are using has a 110-ohm resistance between the center tap wire and each end lead and a 220-ohm resistance between the two end leads. A wire from each of the separate coils will show an infinitely high resistance (no connection) between them. Armed with this information you can just about tackle any six-wire stepper motor you come across. The stepper motor we are using rotates 1.8 degrees per step.
ten
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10.7 UCN-5804 stepper motor controller chip
UCN-5804
Figure 10.7 is a schematic pin-out of the UCN-5804. This integrated circuit (IC) is designed to control and drive a four-phase unipolar stepper motor, such as the one we are using. Features of the UCN-5804 are as follows: 1.25-ampere (A) maximum output current (continuous) 35-volt (35V) output sustaining voltage Full-step and half-step outputs Output enable and direction control Internal clamp diodes Power-on reset Internal thermal shutdown circuitry The IC has a continuous output rating of 1.25 A per phase at a maximum voltage of 35 V. This is more than enough power to run our 12V stepper motor. The current required per phase (12 V/110 ohms 0.11 A) is about one-tenth of an ampere. The UCN-5804 internal logic sequences its output pins in time with a square wave pulse delivered to pin 11. Each square wave pulse (high to low transition) delivered to this pin increments the stepper motor sequence. When you reach the end of your table, the sequence repeats starting from the top of the table. To reverse the stepper motor direction, start the sequence from the bottom and work toward the top. Pin 15 is the output enable. When this pin is held high, all outputs on the IC are disabled (off). If this function isn t required by your circuit or system, this pin should be tied to ground (low).
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