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Figure 9-8 JavaCard components
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Another great advancement that has taken off because of JavaCard technology is the advent of other kinds of Java tokens, including Java rings. Java rings offer the most personal of tokens: jewelry. The ring is a steel casing that houses an 8-bit microprocessor called Crypto iButton. This microprocessor is similar to one you might find on smart card. It has its own real-time clock and a high-speed math accelerator to perform 1,024-bit public-key operations. Conceivably, it can hold additional information (such as a passport, driver s license, or medical data). The Crypto iButton microprocessor is not specific to Java rings and can be found in a number of other form factors, as shown in Figure 9-9.
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Figure 9-9 Crypto iButton form factors: (a) wristwatch; (b) dogtag-type token; (c) Java ring
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Biometrics is the science of measuring a characteristic of the human body; in its commercial application, such measurements are used to verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physical characteristics such as fingerprints, retinas and irises, palm prints, facial structure, and voice are some of the many methods being researched. Because these characteristics are relatively unique to each individual, biometrics provides an excellent means of authentication. As explained in the following sections, this technology is particularly useful for authentication when applied to commerce over the Internet. Biometric systems are believed to provide a higher level of security than other forms of authentication, such as the use of passwords or PINs. One reason is that a biometric trait cannot be lost, stolen, or duplicated, at least not as easily as a password or PIN. Second, the use of biometrics provides nontransferable authentication. Simply stated, all other types of authentication, such as a key, are transferable. You can give someone your private key, but not your eyeball or finger (we hope).
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The various biometric recognition mechanisms typically operate in two modes: enrollment and verification. In the enrollment process, the user s biological feature (physical characteristic or personal trait) is acquired and stored for later use. This stored characteristic, commonly known as a template, is usually placed in a back-end database for later retrieval. The verification process is as you might expect. The user s characteristic is measured and compared against the stored template. The following sections describe these processes in greater detail.
Enrollment
For initial use of the biometric, each user must be enrolled by a system administrator, who verifies that each individual being enrolled is an authorized user. The biological feature is acquired by a hardware device, known as a sensor, which typically resides at the front end of the biometric authentication mechanism. When a physical feature is presented to the sensor, the sensor produces a signal that is modulated in response to variations in the physical quantity being measured. If, for example, the
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sensor is a microphone used to capture a voice pattern, the microphone produces a signal whose amplitude (voltage or current) varies with time in response to the varying frequencies in a spoken phrase. Because the signals produced by most biometric sensors are analog, they must be converted into digital form so that they can be processed by computer. An analog-to-digital converter is therefore the next stage in most systems. Analog-to-digital converters take an analog input signal and produce a digital output stream, a numeric representation of the original analog signal. Rather than use raw data from the sensor, biometric systems often process the data to extract only the information relevant to authentication. Further processing may be used to enhance differences and compress data. When the digital representation has been processed to the desired point, it is stored. Most biometric devices take multiple samples during enrollment to account for degrees of variance in the measurement. Figure 9-10 illustrates a typical enrollment process.
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