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In a symmetric-key cryptographic system, the key is only a number. It can be any number as long as it s the right size, so you simply pick a number at random. Then, the next time you need a key, you pick another number at random. The question is, how do you pick a number at random
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Historical Note: They Always Figure Out the Algorithm
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Cryptographers are often asked a key question: Can t I just encrypt my data and simply not tell the attackers what algorithm I used and how big the key is How can they break my message then There are three answers.
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Answer 1: They Always Figure It Out Anyway
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Attackers can deduce your algorithm without any help from you. Eventually, they always figure it out. Always. Without exception. Never in the history of cryptography has someone been able to keep an algorithm secret. In war, spies have always found ways of discovering the algorithm, whether it originates in a mathematical operation or a machine. They steal it or get someone to reveal it, maybe through blackmail, extortion, or the time-tested cryptanalytic technique known as the rubber-hose attack. Agents have always uncovered the algorithm or gotten a copy of the machine. For example, in World War II, Polish soldiers captured the German Enigma machine early in the war. Enigma was the crypto machine the German military used. The allies (namely the British) were able to crack the code more easily because they had the machine in their possession. Alternatively, the cryptanalysts simply figure out the algorithm. In World War II, U.S. codebreakers were able to determine the inner workings of the Japanese code machines without having one of the machines in their possession. In modern times, a company called Gemstar Development created a code that converted date, time, and channel indicators into a single code number. These code numbers were published in TV listings as VCR . People who bought a GemStar control box could program their VCRs simply by punching in the numbers, simplifying the process and thus benefiting people who owned the product. Only the Gemstar box knew how to decrypt the code numbers. But Ken Shirriff, Curt Welch, and Andrew Kinsman broke the Gemstar algorithm, and they published it in the July 1992 issue of Cryptologia, a trade journal. Now, anyone who wants to decode those numbers
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continues
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(such as VCR manufacturers) can do it without buying a Gemstar control box. Another example is RC4, an algorithm invented in 1987 but never published. Cryptanalysts and other experts studied it and determined that RC4 was a good way to keep data secret. But the company that created it, RSA Data Security, never made the inner workings of the RC4 algorithm public. This secrecy was for monetary and not security reasons; the company hoped that by keeping it secret no one else would implement and sell it. In 1994, anonymous hackers posted the algorithm on the Internet. How did they figure it out It was probably by stepping through a copy of the object code with an assembly language debugger. Incidentally, RC4 is now used as part of Secure Socket Layer (SSL), the World Wide Web s secure communication protocol (see 7). RC4 is arguably the most commonly used symmetric cipher, even more so than DES, discussed later in this chapter in the section Digital Encryption Standard. If a cryptographic system is hardware-based, engineers open it and look at the internals. In 1998, David Wagner and Ian Goldberg, at the time graduate students at the University of California at Berkeley, opened a supposedly secure digital cell phone and cracked its code. Sometimes it is possible to keep an algorithm secret long enough to be effective, but eventually the enemy figures it out. For example, in World War II, the U.S. Army used Navajo soldiers to communicate. They simply spoke in Navajo. The Japanese military did not have anyone in its employ who spoke Navajo, nor did it have dictionaries or other reference material. The encryption worked because the algorithm (the Navajo language itself) was kept secret. Now, of course, any large military has linguists on staff who either know or can easily learn any language used to encrypt secrets.
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