vb.net barcode scanner webcam A-2 The Core 96Member ASCII Character Set in Software

Creator Code-39 in Software A-2 The Core 96Member ASCII Character Set

Table A-2 The Core 96Member ASCII Character Set
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21 !
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22 32 2 42 B 52 R 62 b 72 r
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23 # 33 3 43 C 53 S 63 c 73 s
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24 $ 34 4 44 D 54 T 64 d 74 t
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25 % 35 5 45 E 55 U 65 e 75 u
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26 & 36 6 46 F 56 V 66 f 76 v
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27 37 7 47 G 57 W 67 g 77 w
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28 ( 38 8 48 H 58 X 68 h 78 x
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29 ) 39 9 49 I 59 Y 69 i 79 y
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2A * 3A : 4A J 5A Z 6A j 7A z
2C ,
2D 3D
2E . 3E
2F / 3F
30 0 40 @ 50 P 60 ` 70 p
31 1 41 A 51 Q 61 a 71 q
3B ; 4B K 5B [ 6B k 7B {
Appendix A
4C L 5C \ 6C l 7C | 4D M 5D ] 6D m 7D } 4E N 5E ^ 6E n 7E 4F O 5F _ 6F o 7F DEL
The character 0x20 is space, as in the space between two words. The character 0x7F is the DELETE key.
Bits, Bytes, Hex, and ASCII
Using Computers in Cryptography
Keep in mind that to a computer, numbers can represent many kinds of meanings. For example, if a computer is looking at 0x42 A0 10 07, it might be looking at the decimal number 1,117,786,119, or those bits might mean something else. It could be an instruction, for example. A computer program is a series of instructions, and because a computer stores everything as binary numbers, instructions, too, can look like numbers. Moreover, each chip has its own instruction set, so a number on one computer may mean one instruction but on another computer may mean something else. For example, on one machine the bits 0x42 A0 10 07 might be the computer s way of saying, Add the contents of register 16 to the contents of register 7 and store the result in register 7. Other values could represent memory addresses, other control characters, or some sort of data in another format. In cryptography, though, these kinds of values are simply bytes and numbers. So when we talk about plaintext, we really mean bytes of data, no matter what meaning the owner of the data attributes to the bytes. A crypto algorithm looks at the data as bits to manipulate or numbers to crunch. Cryptography makes no distinction between bytes that represent letters of the alphabet and bytes that indicate instructions in a program. They are simply bytes.
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APPENDIX
A Layman s Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER
An RSA Laboratories Technical Note Burton S. Kaliski Jr. Revised November 1, 1993
NOTE:
This document supersedes June 3, 1991 version, which was also published as NIST/OSI Implementors Workshop document SEC-SIG-91-17. PKCS documents are available by electronic mail to pkcs@rsa.com .
Abstract
This note gives a layman s introduction to a subset of OSI s Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1), Basic Encoding Rules (BER), and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER). The particular purpose of this note is to provide background material sufficient for understanding and implementing the PKCS family of standards.
Copyright 1991 1993 RSA Laboratories, a division of RSA Data Security, Inc. License to copy this document is granted provided that it is identified as RSA Data Security, Inc. Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) in all material mentioning or referencing this document. 003-903015-110-000-000
Copyright 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.
Appendix B
Section 1: Introduction
It is a generally accepted design principle that abstraction is a key to managing software development. With abstraction, a designer can specify a part of a system without concern for how the part is actually implemented or represented. Such a practice leaves the implementation open; it simplifies the specification; and it makes it possible to state axioms about the part that can be proved when the part is implemented, and assumed when the part is employed in another, higher-level part. Abstraction is the hallmark of most modern software specifications. One of the most complex systems today, and one that also involves a great deal of abstraction, is Open Systems Interconnection (OSI, described in X.200). OSI is an internationally standardized architecture that governs the interconnection of computers from the physical layer up to the user application layer. Objects at higher layers are defined abstractly and intended to be implemented with objects at lower layers. For instance, a service at one layer may require transfer of certain abstract objects between computers; a lower layer may provide transfer services for strings of 1 s and 0 s, using encoding rules to transform the abstract objects into such strings. OSI is called an open system because it supports many different implementations of the services at each layer. OSI s method of specifying abstract objects is called ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation 1, defined in X.208), and one set of rules for representing such objects as strings of 1 s and 0 s is called the BER (Basic Encoding Rules, defined in X.209). ASN.1 is a flexible notation that allows one to define a variety data types, from simple types such as integers and bit strings to structured types such as sets and sequences, as well as complex types defined in terms of others. BER describes how to represent or encode values of each ASN.1 type as a string of eight-bit octets. There is generally more than one way to BER-encode a given value. Another set of rules, called the Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), which is a subset of BER, gives a unique encoding to each ASN.1 value. The purpose of this note is to describe a subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER sufficient to understand and implement one OSI-based application, RSA Data Security, Inc. s Public-Key Cryptography Standards. The features described include an overview of ASN.1, BER, and DER and an abridged list of ASN.1 types and their BER and DER encodings. Sections 2-4 give an overview of ASN.1, BER, and DER, in that order. Section 5 lists some ASN.1 types, giving their notation, specific encoding rules,
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