vb.net barcode scanner webcam Technical Note: XOR in Software

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Technical Note: XOR
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The term XOR stands for exclusive OR, a type of bit manipulation. The first concept to understand is an OR. An OR is a bit manipulation that says, Look at two bits. If one OR the other is set, set the result.
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0 0 1 1 OR OR OR OR 0 1 0 1 = = = = 0 1 1 1 (zero (zero ( one ( one OR zero equals 0) OR one equals 1) OR zero equals 1) OR one equals 1)
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An exclusive OR says, Look at two bits. If one is exclusively set, OR if the other is exclusively set, set the result. If both bits are set, then there s no exclusivity, so the result bit is not set.
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0 0 1 1 XOR XOR XOR XOR 0 1 0 1 = = = = 0 1 1 0 (zero (zero ( one ( one XOR zero equals 0) XOR one equals 1) XOR zero equals 1) XOR one equals 0)
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XOR is a useful bit manipulation in cryptography because half of the time the result is 1, and the other half of the time it s 0. If one bit is plaintext, and one bit is key stream, then the key stream sometimes changes the bit and sometimes doesn t change the bit. In grade school, we learned how to add, subtract, and multiply using columns:
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1,482 + 319 1,801 77 - 5 72 204 * 8 1632
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Similarly, we can perform XOR operations on longer numbers. Computers, of course, see all numbers as binary values.
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values as binary text values as 0111 0100 0110 0101 0111 1000 0111 0100 0x74 XOR 1001 1011 0010 1100 0110 0011 1000 0100 0x9B 1110 1111 0100 1001 0001 1011 1111 0000 0xEF hex text 65 78 74 2C 63 84 49 1B F0 continues
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Symmetric-Key Cryptography
The first row (the row that begins 0111 0100) in the preceding table is the ASCII bit formation of the word text. ASCII gives us a standard way to map characters to numbers. For example, lowercase t is represented as the number 0x74 (binary 0111 0100), which is decimal 116. Punctuation marks are also included; a comma, for example, is 0x2C, which is decimal 44. You see 0111 0100 and so on, but the computer sees the word text. Suppose that word text is our plaintext. To encrypt it, we perform the steps the algorithm prescribes, namely XOR it with the key stream. If the second row (the row with the binary values beginning 1001 1011) is the key stream and we perform the XOR operation, what do we get We get the bottom row (the row beginning 1110 1111) that would be the ciphertext. What does this ciphertext say It says 9 As it happens, the first, third, and fourth characters are not standard characters (they are numbers outside the ASCII range). The second is the character 9. So the algorithm converted the e in text to a 9 , but what about the other characters Because the numbers are not standard character numbers, each computer or software package gets to decide what they mean. One computer or software package might print the ciphertext as 9 . Another computer or software package might print it as 9 . Whichever you use, it looks like gibberish; it s nothing like the plaintext. If you start with the ciphertext and XOR it with the key stream, what do you get You get the plaintext.
values as binary text values as hex text 1110 1111 0100 1001 0001 1011 1111 0000 0xEF 49 1B F0 XOR 1001 1011 0010 1100 0110 0011 1000 0100 0x9B 2C 63 84 0111 0100 0110 0101 0111 1000 0111 0100 0x74 65 78 74
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