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BFB4 BFB5 Decrypt the ciphertext, yielding the purported check and session key. Perform the check.
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How long it takes to do one BFK depends on four things. How long it takes to do one BFP depends on those same four things, plus one more. If step BFP2 is as long as the other four steps combined, that s going to double the amount of time to check one password. That s like adding one bit to your password. The eight-character password which was equivalent to a 52-bit key is now more like a 53-bit key. In our experiments, performing 1,000 iterations (doing step BFP2 1,000 times) is about 136 times slower than the other steps combined (more or less, depending on the encryption algorithm; we used RC4, a very fast algorithm). On one Pentium-based PC, step BFP2 took 4.36 milliseconds, whereas checking one key took 0.032 milliseconds (a millisecond is one one-thousandth of a second; Pao-Chi is going to pay this 4 millisecond penalty when he encrypts or decrypts). Although Ray could check 31,000 keys per second, he could check only 230 passwords per second. The eightcharacter password is now equivalent to a 59-bit key. The 10-character password is more like a 72-bit key. Incidentally, you may be thinking, In a lot of places I ve used passwords, there s a limit to how many times I can enter the wrong password before the program won t work. So if I try too many wrong passwords even if I later on do enter the correct password, the application won t run. Can t I just make PBE work the same It s possible to write such a program, but the attacker will simply use a different PBE program that mimics the original. That is, Pao-Chi used his program to encrypt. Ray would simply obtain a copy of the ciphertext and run it through another program that looks like Pao-Chi s, except Ray s program puts no limits on the number of passwords allowed.
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In choosing a password, your goal is to choose one that doesn t appear in a dictionary and would thwart a brute-force attack. For example, the following password probably does not appear in a password dictionary: 14G:c*%3 wM*-l6g]_Bnp d86
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by Steve Burnett Many programs, especially login programs, place a limit on the number of wrong password tries they will accept before locking up. Usually, the limit is three. Enforcing a limit is a good security measure, but it s very annoying that the limit is so low. Furthermore, a low limit does not add any significant security compared to a larger limit. Suppose you enter a password and the program denies access. You check and see that you accidentally have the CAPS LOCK on. You fix that and type in a password again. But this one didn t work either. What happened Did you forget the password Or did you simply misspell (for instance, how many times have I typed in teh for the or even Bunrett and that s my own name!) Did you accidentally press a stray key There s no way to know since you can t see what you typed. You ve made two tries and gotten it wrong both times; are you going to try a third time Probably not, because if you get it wrong, you ll be locked out. So it really isn t it a three-try password but a two-try. Now what about attackers If the password is so weak that you need to limit intruders to no more than three tries, it s too weak. The security department should be talking to the employees about using better passwords. What s more, attackers may not even be trying the password through the user interface. Instead, they re probably grabbing information and trying the attack offline. Given this, why not set the limit of password tries to, say, 10 That would make things easier for the user and most likely wouldn t give attackers any significant assistance. Three tries and you re out is just a pain in the neck.
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It s a possible password, but attackers probably won t get around to trying it for a very long time. The problem with this password, of course, is that it s not easy to remember, and even if you could remember it (maybe you have a photographic memory), it s easy to mistype.
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