vb.net pdf 417 reader 3: Windows Overview in Software

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3: Windows Overview
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In the last chapter, we looked at various pieces of the UNIX system and networking framework to assist in developing a model for sharing UNIX resources with Windows clients using Samba. In 3, we continue this discussion thread by examining the corresponding Windows system and networking subsystems. In particular, we will look closely at Windows networking protocols, domains and workgroups, file systems, and access controls. Samba is an implementation of Windows file-and-print sharing services and also provides basic NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) functionality. Thus a sound understanding of Windows networking protocols and domain services will be critical in successfully deploying Samba in the enterprise.
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The Windows NT operating system is similar to UNIX in that processes interact with CPU, memory, and hardware via an executive system services layer. NT employs preemptive multitasking to manage the execution of process threads in much the same way UNIX schedulers work. This allows NT to suspend some tasks to provide resources for higher priority tasks. NT is also multithreaded, giving it the capability of running on symmetric multiprocessing platforms. This seems quite a bit like UNIX. The NT development team spent a fair amount of time reviewing and borrowing ideas from UNIX and other computing architectures, and ultimately used Carnegie Mellon's Mach microkernel as the foundation for the operating system. Windows NT is implemented as a layered subsystem architecture and supports
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applications from a number of different operating system environments (Figure 3.1). In contrast to the previous chapter's bottom-up discussion of the UNIX OS layers, we will view Windows NT from the top down. At the top layer of the NT architecture stack reside user mode services. These include a Virtual DOS Machine (VDM) for running legacy DOS applications, a 16-bit Windows subsystem for Windows 3.x programs, a POSIX subsystem, an OS/2 subsystem, and the Win32 subsystem. Applications executing within a particular subsystem are managed as separate protected virtual memory spaces. User mode services interact with lower-level kernel-mode services through the executive services buffer. This buffer is a code section that partitions and protects user-mode and kernel-mode operations. Immediately below this buffer are the NT Executive Managers, which regulate object and process life cycles; virtual memory; procedure calls; I/O functions; and monitor access security. A small fixed microkernel sits below the executive manager layer. The microkernel's role is limited to dispatching and synchronizing threads and managing system interrupts. The base of the operating system is made up of the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL), whose job is to hide hardware and device-driver dependencies from the rest of the operating system. This simplifies, secures, and generalizes the API for developing applications that use hardware services.
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Figure 3.1: Windows NT layered architecture
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Windows NT comes complete with almost all the network protocols and interfaces one could ask for (Figure 3.2). The usual suspects include TCP/IP, NetBIOS/NetBEUI, and IPX/SPX. The base protocols and interfaces are augmented by additional communication services to support Virtual Private Networking (VPN) and Routing and Remote Access Services (RRAS), as well as gateway support among Microsoft LAN Manager, OS2 LAN Manager, Banyan Vines, Novell, and the Internet. For our purposes, we will narrow the set down to NetBIOS and TCP/IP, which provide the transport for the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol between Samba and Windows clients and servers.
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Figure 3.2: Windows NT network architecture
NetBIOS
A long time ago, in a LAN far, far away, an API was developed to extend the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) services of personal computers to include support for sharing information between computers over a network. The resulting NetBIOS API is documented in the IBM PC Network Technical Reference Manual, (September 1994). The NetBIOS API defines three service types: session service, datagram service, and name service. Conversations between NetBIOS applications are facilitated by NetBIOS session and datagram services. The NetBIOS session service is used when a reliable virtual circuit with guaranteed delivery is required for passing messages between two known parties. An example of a session-based connection would be accessing a file share. In contrast, the NetBIOS datagram service is used for connectionless communication without guaranteed delivery when the target recipient is not known in advance. Datagrams, or Mailslots in the Microsoft parlance, are usually transmitted as network broadcasts or multicasts to a group of machines. Datagram services are used when a client requests the identification of the master browser.
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