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In the following chapters, we'll investigate the specific access controls and defenses on hand for hardening security and access rights to Samba shares and services. In preparation, it will be helpful to take a brief overview of some of the general access management parameters and facilities provided by Samba. As the saying goes, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." The first step in securing your resources is to welcome your friends and deny your enemies. Use the hosts allow and hosts deny parameters in the global and share sections to restrict access to those hosts that are trusted members of your workgroup or domain. You can specify computers by name, IP number, or by using a subnet mask. The except keyword can be used in conjunction with a subnet mask or IP number wild card to exclude individual or groups of machines (Example 6.4).
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Example 6.4 Restricting Access by Host Name or Host IP Address hosts allow = 192.168. except 192.168.0.10 hosts deny = frodo, bilbo hosts allow = 149.125.10.0/255.255.255.0 You may also restrict access to an individual or a group of users using the username, only user, valid users, and invalid users parameters (Example 6.5). Depending on the parameter used, the client-supplied user name and/or password is checked against the list of user names before granting access. If the user name is prefixed with an "@" sign or a "&" sign it is assumed to correspond to an NIS netgroup. If prefixed with a "+" sign, the name is checked against the UNIX group file. Example 6.5 Restricting Access by User Name invalid users = root system +wheel only user = fred Sometimes you will want to make shares available to anyone. This is accomplished by specifying guest ok or only guest parameter in the share section definition. Note that even though you are granting public access to a resource, you will still want to restrict rights by mapping guest access to a known UNIX user name by using the guest account parameter (Example 6.6). This way guest rights are governed by the privileges owned by the specified account name. Example 6.6 Restricting Guest Access guest ok = true guest account = nobody Additional access controls may be specified for each share using the parameters listed in Table 6.6. In general, the following rules are applied when a client requests access to a share or service. Access is granted if: An unrestricted client passes a user name and password that maps to a permitted UNIX account name. A client previously registered a user name with the server and follows up by supplying a valid password. The client's NetBIOS name and previously used user name are checked against the supplied password. A client has a previously validated user name/password pair and supplies a validation token to the server. The share is configured with user list parameter and the client supplies a valid
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password for one of the user names in the list. A share is configured with a guest account parameter and the client supplies the valid guest account name. Table 6.6 Additional Access Control Parameters
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read only read list writeable write ok write list printable print ok revalidate group enforce named group rights force group force security mode force directory security mode create mask security mask force security mask veto files hide files hide dot files
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Summary
smb.conf is broken down into global and share sections.
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Sections are delimited by a section name enclosed in square brackets. Section attributes are specified from a set of predefined parameters. Parameters are represented as parameter = value pairs. Values are either text strings or boolean values. Substitution variables may be used to assign parameter values at runtime. The include and copy parameters can be used to insert or clone sections in the configuration file. The preexec and postexec parameters can be used to invoke commands or scripts when a client connects and releases a share respectively. Modifications to the smb.conf file can be validated using the testparm command. SWAT is a Web-based smb.conf configuration tool that can be used from remote workstations. SWAT service and port information must be defined /etc/services and /etc/inetd.conf. The [global] section defines the server's roles in the workgroup or domain, section defaults, and administrative limits. Share sections describe individual services and associated access rights. There are two predefined share sections: [homes] and [printers]. [homes] section permits connection to $HOME directories by providing the owning user name as the requested share. [printers] section permits access to printers defined in printcap file. Share access rights can be applied at the host, user and UNIX permission levels.
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