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7: Samba Authentication
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"He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips, betrayal oozes out of him at every pore." Sigmund Freud The same might be said of computer and network security. Can your server keep a secret Do clear text passwords ooze from every network wire In this chapter, we're going to - 97 -
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explore various Samba authentication and access control mechanisms. We'll look at how Samba can be used to integrate and synchronize UNIX and Windows account information, interact with alternative authentication services, and reduce the use of clear-text passwords on the network.
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Samba supports four basic ways to regulate a network client's access rights to a particular resource share. First, Samba can allow or deny connection requests based on the client's IP address. This provides a coarse level of security. Any user with an account on a client computer that has an authorized IP address will be permitted to access the share. Second, Samba can check the client's proffered clear-text username and/or password against a UNIX authentication resource like /etc/passwd, NIS, or Kerberos. Clear-text passwords are encrypted by Samba using the associated UNIX cipher before verifying the credentials against the authentication resource. Third, Samba can negotiate NTLM style encryption with the client and validate the hashed password against a separate /usr/local/samba/private/smbpasswd file. This option requires the maintenance and possibly the synchronization of both the server's UNIX passwd database and the smbpasswd database. Lastly, Samba can pass the client's credentials to a third-party authentication server for validation. The remote authentication server might be another Samba server or an NT domain controller. Once the credentials have been validated by the remote server, access is granted to the requested resource.
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In the "Security and Access Control" section of 6, we discussed restricting access to shares by client IP address using the hosts allow and hosts deny parameters. Specify trusted or forbidden computers as parameter values by NetBIOS name, by IP address, or by using a subnet mask. The except keyword can be used in conjunction with a subnet mask or IP number wild card format to include or exclude individual machines from a group (Example 7.1). Example 7.1 Restricting Access by Host Name or Host IP Address hosts allow = 192.168. except 192.168.0.10 hosts deny = frodo, bilbo hosts allow = 149.125.10.0/255.255.255.0
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The modus operandi for user-level authentication is determined by the global security parameter setting. Although the security parameter accepts one of four predefined values, share, user, server, and domain, in reality Samba only supports two levels of user authentication, share and user. The server and domain options are effectively extensions of user-level authentication. This setting dictates what credentials are required when a client attempts to connect to a shared resource. Generally, if you will be synchronizing user names and passwords between your Samba server and your client workstations, you will want to specify user-level security. If your client user names and passwords don't match those on the Samba server and you will be supporting older Windows for Workgroups clients, designate share-level security. security = <share, user, server, domain>
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Share level authentication dictates that clients supply a password associated with the requested resource before a connection is established. Note that there may be more than one password associated with a resource. For example, you might specify separate readonly and read-write passwords for a file share using the read-list and write-list parameters. Share level does not require a user name and thus does not require an SMB session setup step. If a user name is supplied, it is ignored. If guest access is permitted, the client submits a blank password. Share-level authentication was the default level in Samba releases prior to version 2.0 and for Windows 95 file and printer sharing (Figure 7.1). As of Samba Version 2.0 the default security setting is user for compatibility with Windows 98 and Windows NT. security = share
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