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Samba can also be configured to operate as a primary WINS server. Use the wins support parameter to enable or disable Samba as a WINS server. Note that the wins support and the wins server parameters are mutually exclusive. The former indicates that Samba is acting as a WINS server. The latter identifies Samba as a WINS client: wins support = <true, false> When running as a WINS server, Samba stores client registration information as ASCII text in the wins.dat file. The wins.dat database is located by default in the ./samba/var/locks directory. Each entry includes the NetBIOS name, resource type, IP address, and broadcast address. WINS replication is not supported by Samba. Windows NT WINS servers can replicate WINS data with each other by providing fault tolerance and load sharing in large networks. For this reason, you might want to consider using Windows NT for WINS services rather than using the Samba WINS service. If you decide to use Samba as a WINS server, remember that only one server can be deployed for a given workgroup or domain. Using more than one Samba WINS server will result in partitioning or fragmenting access to computers in the workgroup or domain.
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Environments that have older Windows or LAN Manager clients that reside on multiple subnets might want to consider using Samba's WINS proxy facility. Enabling Samba's global wins proxy parameter instructs Samba nmbd to forward any broadcast name registrations or queries it receives to the designated WINS server for the workgroup or domain. Using Samba as a WINS agent allows you to leverage older clients into a WINS managed workgroup or domain: wins proxy = <yes, no>
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Another Samba feature that can simplify administration of complex WINS networks is to
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allow nmbd to look up NetBIOS names via Internet DNS. When Samba nmbd is operating as a WINS server, and a name check against the registered WINS database fails, a second nmbd process is spawned to check the name against DNS. Note that because NetBIOS names are limited to 16 characters in length, the requested name may be truncated, and some DNS lookups may fail. To enable Samba DNS proxy support, set both the global dns proxy and wins support parameters to true. Samba must be operating as a WINS server to resolve name queries via DNS. wins support = true dns proxy = true
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In some instances it may be helpful to have Samba resolve its own NetBIOS name queries using both the LMHOSTS table and WINS service. For example you might want to override WINS registrations for a particular name by setting an explicit entry in the LMHOSTS file. Using the name resolve order parameter you can instruct Samba to check LMHOSTS before trying WINS. Note that this feature is not supported for resolving remote queries when Samba is operating as a WINS server or proxy. name resolve order = <lmhosts wins>
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Windows 2000 Name Service
Windows 2000 departs from the WINS track in that it relies on DNS for resolving names. The Active Directory component of Windows 2000 uses Internet-style domain names for naming objects in the directory. Internet domain names are translated into domain component entries when resolving object names in the directory (Example 8.5). WINS integration support is included in Windows 2000 for backward compatibility with older clients and servers. Two special DNS resource record types, WINS and WINS-R, are used to designate WINS servers to be used when resolving NetBIOS names. The WINS servers are consulted when a local DNS lookup fails. This facility can also be used to set up a WINS-only DNS zone for referrals using an explicit subdomain. For example, you might define a DNS subdomain called wins. Any DNS queries for domain names that include this subdomain would be refered to the DNS server that resolves WINS NetBIOS names. Refer to "Using WINS Lookup" in Windows 2000 help for more information. Windows NT 4.0 WINS/DNS integration can also be used to map WINS NetBIOS names into DNS as a transition bridge between WINS environments and Windows 2000. Example 8.5 DNS to Domain Component Name DNS: DC: opus.cac.washington.edu DC=opus,DC=cac,DC=Washington,DC=edu,o=Internet
Summary
Workgroup and domain resources are identified by a 16-character NetBIOS name. NetBIOS names are registered and resolved by using host tables, collaborative broadcasts and caching, or point-to-point communication with name servers. The NetBIOS host table known as the LMHOSTS file represents the simplest method
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of mapping NetBIOS names to IP addresses. NetBIOS broadcasts provide an automated registration and resolving service but may result in a significant amount of broadcast traffic in large networks and may be limited by subnet. Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) uses point-to-point communication with designated WINS servers to register and resolve names. WINS services reduce broadcast traffic and can span subnets. Samba supports LMHOSTS, broadcast, WINS and hybrid WINS operation. LMHOSTS lookup is enabled by invoking nmbd with the -H option which identifies the directory path to the LMHOSTS file. To configure Samba as a WINS client use the wins server parameter to identify the WINS server by IP address or DNS name. To configure Samba as a WINS server enable the wins support parameter. Remember that wins server and wins support are mutually exclusive. Use Samba to proxy broadcasts from older Windows and LAN Manager clients to a target WINS server by enabling the wins proxy parameter. Allow Samba, when operating as a WINS server, to look up names via DNS as well as the WINS database by enabling the dns proxy parameter. Instruct Samba to resolve NetBIOS names by both LMHOSTS and WINS by specifying the order using the name resolve order parameter. Note that this is only used for local queries by Samba.
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