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The UNIX directory and file structure is organized such that it resembles an inverted tree, beginning with the root directory at the top and subdirectory branches proceeding down from the root. Each directory level in the tree may contain files or additional subdirectories. Directories also act as mount points for connecting additional file systems to the tree. The root-level directory, designated "/", acts as the base mount point for the full tree structure. A listing of mounted file systems, their mount points and attributes can be displayed using the df command (Example 2.6). When perusing the mount information on various systems you may recognize a set of common directory names. There is a somewhat standard set of directories used to house various types of files.
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These are listed in Table 2.7. Example 2.6 Mounted Filesystem Attributes # df Filesystem /dev/hd4 /dev/hd2 /dev/hd9var /dev/hd3 /dev/lv01 /dev/lv02
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Table 2.7 Common UNIX Directories
/ /bin /dev /etc /home /lib, /usr/lib /sbin /tmp /usr/bin /usr/adm /usr/include /var, /usr/spool /usr/local /usr/man
Root of filesystem tree Command binary files Device files Configuration files and administrative scripts User files Library files System binary files Temporary files Commands and scripts Accounting and administrative files System ".h" include files Spool and log files Local commands, scripts, and files Manual pages
File Interface
In the opening paragraphs of this chapter I mentioned that all UNIX objects are
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abstracted as files. This interface provides a common set of system calls which can be used to manipulate file objects. It also allows for chaining together the various file I/O commands and system calls from programs, shell scripts, and the command line. As one might expect there are some subtle differences in the interfaces based on the attributes of the target file object (Table 2.8). This will be useful information to keep in mind when attempting to operate on UNIX file objects via a Samba shared directory. Table 2.8 UNIX File types
Regular Directories Hard Links
Byte strings that have no imposed structure Paired list of inodes and filenames Files referenced by more than one name within the same file system File name pointer to a file residing in any file system /dev file that points to block data device driver /dev file that points to a character data device driver SYSV channel for interprocess communication BSD channel for interprocess communication
Symbolic Links Block Character Named Pipes Socket
File type and permitted operation attribute information can be displayed using the ls command (Example 2.7). The leftmost column in the long option of the command indicates the file type by the first character in the string. The subsequent set of r, w, and x characters specify the respective read, write, and execute permissions for the owner, group and world. The owner and group are listed as strings in the next set of columns preceding size, date, and file name. Example 2.7 File Attributes and Permissions # ls alF /home/deroest total 1152 drwx-rx-rx 4 deroest drwx-rx-rx 5 bin -rw------1 deroest drwx-rx-rx 8 deroest -rwx-rx-rx 1 deroest -rwxr----1 deroest -rw----1 deroest drwx-rx-rx 4 deroest
system bin system system system system system system
1024 512 150 512 3970 254 54 512
Nov Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep
14 08 12 12 12 08 26 26
04:45 16:08 04:56 04:56 04:56 16:08 07:43 07:42
./ ../ .Xauthority .dt/ .dtprofile* .profile* .sh_history info/
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A common way of sharing files and directories between networked UNIX systems is Sun's Network File System (NFS). NFS is a stateless file sharing protocol based on a set of Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) and an External Data Representation (XDR) specification to trap, reroute, and communicate file operations and attributes between machines. NFS is based on a client/server architecture that enables applications to interoperate seamlessly on remote files and directories without regard to their locale. Sun placed this architecture in the public domain and it became a de facto standard for distributed file systems under UNIX. NFS is also supported on many other operating systems including Windows. Again, it is important to understand NFS and its relationship to Samba directory shares in mixed environments. NFS servers rely on a number of daemons to manage distributed file system services (Table 2.9). I/O requests from multiple clients are multiplexed through a configurable number of nfsd and biod daemons. The nfsd daemons manage file I/O operations and the biod daemons control block I/O services. NFS servers register themselves with the portmap daemon which maintains the list of RPC applications on a particular machine. Client applications query the portmap daemon to determine the port number associated with a known service name. The rpc.mountd daemon is used by the server to manage and track client mount requests. Recent RPC operations between clients and servers are cached by the rpc.statd daemon. SYSV advisory file and record locking is supported by the server's rpc.lockd daemon.
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