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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is a fiberoptic transmission technique that employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallel by bit or serially by character. DWDM system scalability is important when enabling service providers to accommodate consumer demand for ever-increasing amounts of bandwidth. DWDM is discussed as a crucial component of optical networks that enables the transmission of e-mail, video, multimedia, data, and voice carried on IP, ATM, and Synchronous Optical Network/ Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH).
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The Bandwidth Crisis
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As Internet connections worldwide double each year, more users are upgrading to gain faster access. It seems to be a great time for Inter-
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Figure 4-10 Peer model
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net users and service carriers. Users who subscribe to faster access will enjoy speedier Internet experiences, and service carriers can cash in on the increased user base. Unfortunately, reality is far from ideal, since users are not getting the bandwidth advertised by providers. The Internet carriers are having a hard time balancing between upgrading infrastructure to meet Internet traffic growth and keeping shareholders happy by making profits. Not only does the bandwidth crisis apply to the Internet sector, but it also applies to voice, fax, and data traffic. Data traffic is gaining in importance over all the other sectors. Internet traffic has been growing exponentially from 1990 to 1997 compared with traditional telecommunications traffic of 10 to 17 percent in the same period. This is illustrated in Figure 4-11. There are various media such as coaxial cable, twisted pair, optical fiber, radiofrequency, satellites, and microwave wireless, but optical fiber is the only medium with enough bandwidth to handle the rapidly growing high-capacity backbone of the data storage environment in the world today. The most common fiber-optic cable is OC-48, with a transmission rate of 2.488 Gbps. The deployment of 10 Gbps in OC-192 is becoming more feasible. From a user standpoint, 2.5 or 10 Gbps may sound like enormously high bandwidth, but 2.5 Gbps can support approximately 1,600 digital subscriber line (DSL)
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Figure 4-11 Projecting bandwidth growth
PROJECTING BANDWIDTH GROWTH 10 Tb/s
4.07 Tb/s 920.3 Gb/s
1 Tb/s
Bandwidth
100 Gb/s
Super POP close sector of bandwidth growth
183 Gb/s Hats needed 37 Gb/s OC-102
10 Gb/s
520 480 440 400 360 320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0
Port Sound
7.4 Gb/s 2.2 Gb/s OC-12
OC-48
1 Gb/s
OC-9 0 Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4 1998 1999 2000 2001 1997
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Configuring SANs: Dos and Don ts
4 users connecting at 1.544 Mbps. This may be fine for a local carrier, but the major network access points around the United States will have trouble keeping up if DSL and other broadband services are as widespread as 56 kbps modems are today. The largest access points MAE-East (Washington, DC) and MAE-West (San Jose, CA) have combined traffic that has more than quadrupled in each of the 2 years since 1995. Combined traffic reached about 1.5 Gbps on average in mid-1997. This is an equivalent of about 12,000 phone calls, and this figure indicates that the Internet is insufferably slow because there had to be more Internet traffic than the equivalent 12,000 phone calls around the United States in 1997.
Possible Solutions to the Bandwidth Crisis
There are various solutions to ease the bandwidth crisis. Carriers can install more fiber-optic cable into their infrastructures. For longdistance carriers whose networks exceed 10,000 miles of cable across the United States, installing more fiber-optic cable is not logistically feasible. Even for small-distance carriers (300 km or less), laying extra cable in a metropolitan area may take months to achieve, requiring government paperwork and clearances prior to beginning construction. In either case, carriers are turning to DWDM as a SAN solution. By combining multiple wavelengths, each representing separate data channels, the same fiber-optic cable suddenly has the bandwidth capacity of multiple cables. An additional benefit of DWDM is that repeaters commonly used in Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) networks, such as SONET, are replaced by optical amplifiers. Unlike repeaters, optical amplifiers can amplify multiplexed signals without demultiplexing first. This reduces intermittent bottlenecking. Optical amplifiers also can be placed farther apart than repeaters. With TDM, bandwidth is inversely proportional to pulse width twice. In other words, a higher bandwidth in a TDM system will create a shorter pulse width, equaling a higher frequency and making it more susceptible to fiber dispersion. As the bandwidth requirement increases in the future, researchers are faced with the dispersion issue if TDM is to be competitive. DWDM increases its
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