Working with Domains in Software

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Working with Domains
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Domains, as already mentioned in previous examples, define the technical attributes for a field. Technical attributes set such properties as allowed type and value range which can be entered in the fields. Therefore, fields which have a different use and even a different semantic definition (data element) can make use of the same domains. If a table field is supported with a data element, which uses a domain with a value table, then the possible entries for the field are restricted to the entries in the value table. Fields that make reference (are defined) to the same domain are changed (updated) at the time when the domain is activated in order to guarantee the whole consistency of dictionary objects. Defining a Domain Before creating a new domain, you have to check whether a domain with the same value range already exists. If this is the case, you should use the existing domain if possible. You can check this by using the available functions within the ABAP repository information system utility. There are several alternatives for defining a domain. The most usual way should be to create the domain before defining the data elements for table fields. To create a domain, from the initial dictionary screen, enter the name in the Object name field, click on the radio button next to Domains, and then click on the Create button. The system will display a screen like the one shown in Fig. 8 11. 278
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Figure 8 11: Defining domains. You have to enter information for the following fields: Short text is a mandatory field. Enter here a description of the domain. Display fields below the short text show the name of the user ID as well as the date of the last modification. Under these fields, you can also see the Status. These fields change as you perform the Save and Activate functions, exactly the same as with the data elements. Under the Format box, you have the input fields Data type where you must enter a standard SAP data type. You can select a data type by clicking on the possible entry list button and selecting one of the available types. The field length is the number of valid positions for the field without formatting characters such as periods, commas, and the like. In the Value table input field, you can enter the name of a table. The fields referring to this domain may only assume values contained in the corresponding field (selected when the foreign key is maintained) of this table. A value table may only be used in a single domain. For the check against the entries in the value table to be made, the corresponding foreign key must have been maintained. Under the Output characteristics, you might see the Sign check box when the selected data type is any of the available numeric data types. In this case, the Sign box can be checked to reserve the first position of the output for the number sign. Once the domain is created, save it and activate it so that it can be used in further objects. You can find information about the activation by selecting Utilities Activation log. When errors occur during the activation process of the domain, the activation log will be displayed automatically. You can also assign documentation for a domain by selecting Goto Documentation from the menu. You can optionally limit the number of values allowed using a value table as described earlier or by defining fixed values. Fixed values are defined by selecting Goto Fixed values. The system displays a maintenance screen where you can specify fixed value ranges. Values can only be specified for domains of the data types CHAR, NUMC, DEC, INT1, INT2, and INT4. You can specify both values and a value table for a domain. When this happens, all the fields referring to this domain are checked against both the values and the value table, and therefore can only contain values which are contained in both the specified values and in the value table. In the example shown in Fig. 8 12, you can see that for the domain UPENUM there is a value table UPERS. No values for fields based on the UPENUM domain can be specified if these values do not exist previously in the UPERS value table.
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