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In general, client / server is a style of computing that distributes the workload of a computer application across several cooperating computer programs. This type of computing separates user oriented, application, and data management tasks. Client/server is mainly a software concept that includes a set of service providers and service requesters. In client/server computing, individual software components act as service providers, service requesters, or both. These software services communicate with each other via predefined interfaces. Major advantages of the client/server approach are as follows: Flexible configuration. With the deployment of standard communication interfaces, there are many possibilities for distributing and planning a client/server installation: from a centralized configuration to a highly distributed system. See Fig. 1 11.
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Figure 1 11: SAP R/3 client/server configurations. (Copyright by SAP AG.) Workload distribution. Since application servers work in parallel and communicate with the database, users can be evenly distributed based on their job tasks. Also, there is the possibility of deploying dedicated application servers to specific business areas. High scalability. Client/server permits users to adapt the capacity of their hardware according to the performance needs of their businesses, such as adding additional application servers when there is an increase in number of users, when additional modules start production, and when the database becomes larger. This enables companies to protect software and hardware investments. One of the widely used client/server configurations with the R/3 system is the three tiered architecture (see Fig. 1 12), which separates a system's computers into three function groups: presentation, application, and database. Since client/server is a software concept, it must be clear that an application server includes the software components that make up the provider services for the presentation, acting as a server, but also acting as service requester of the database services.
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Figure 1 12: R/3 three tiered client/server architecture. With the three tiered architecture, each group is set up to support the demands of its functions. The central server contains the database, widely known as the database server. Application servers include the processing logic of the system, including services such as spooling, dispatching user requests, and formatting data. The tasks related to presentation of the data are handled by the presentation servers, which typically are personal computers or workstations, enabling easy access to the system. Communication among the three tiers or server types is accomplished with the use of standard protocol services, such as the ones provided by TCP/IP or CPIC. CPIC stands for Common Programming Interface Communication and includes standard functions and services for program to program communication with the ABAP programming language. The section entitled "R/3 Basis Software" in the next chapter shows in greater detail the services, processes, and components of the client/server architecture of SAP R/3.
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The key to SAP R/3 success was the strategy of making open solutions, in which the applications can run on multiple operating systems, databases, and communication technologies. This enables customers to remain independent of a single vendor if they wish. The list of current SAP supported systems can be found also on the Internet link from the Information Center for Technology Infrastructure at http://www.sap.com/products/techno/index.htm. Select Platforms, then Hardware. What basically makes systems open is the use of standard formats for data exchange, communication interfaces, and program to program communication. SAP extends the openness concept in several respects: At the system level. Support for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, such as all types of UNIX from main system vendors, Microsoft Windows NT, AS/400, and S/390. Support for a large number of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), such as for all Windows flavors (Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT), Macintosh, OS/2, Motif, Internet Browsers, and so on. In 1999 SAP also announced support for the Linux operating system. At the database level. R/3 supports various relational database systems such as Oracle, Informix, Adabas D, DB2, and SQL Server. Access to the data managed by R/3 is possible using standard R/3 reports as well as any other SQL standard tool: ODBC, SQL browsers, and so on. SAP has 23
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User Interface incorporated the standard ANSI SQL as the database manipulation language, which allows users and programmers to store, view, and retrieve data to and from all different underlying database products. At the application level. The system is open to be enhanced and extended to meet specific business requirements. The ABAP repository and the R/3 reference model enable users to understand the relationships and inner workings of R/3 applications. The R/3 programming interface lets other R/3 systems and external programs invoke R/3 function modules via RFCs (remote function calls) or RPCs (remote procedure calls), or by using Business Application Program Interfaces (BAPIs). SAP offers the Remote Function Call Software Developer Kit (RFC SDK), a standard interface for customers and complementary software partners to carry out individual extensions to SAP business applications that support the direct communication with the function modules of R/3. At the URL http://www.sap.com/bfw/index.htm (Business Framework Main information center), under Open BAPI Network, SAP provides a repository or collection of BAPIs with all the information needed for their use. At the desktop level. With the deployment of Microsoft OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) technology, R/3 enables desktop users to access SAP data and functions from many OLE client programs. With the introduction of R/3 release 4.0 and especially with 4.5 and 4.6, SAP leveraged the concept of integration with PC programs, mainly with the technology provided by ActiveX and Java. At the communication protocol level. SAP can use the standard communication protocols TCP/IP, SNA LU6.2, CPIC, and OSF/DCE/DME for interprogram communications as well as for network communication and data transfer. At the external communication level: R/3 includes EDI (electronic data interchange) interfaces to automate the exchange of data (invoices, orders, etc.) between R/3 and other applications systems used by business partners. It also uses MAPI (Messaging Application Program Interface) technology, supporting standard X.400 and SMTP protocols. These standards allow R/3 users to communicate with other mail systems and the Internet. Since release 3.1, with the incorporation of the BAPI technology, SAP has actively supported the new electronic commerce technology with the deployment of the Internet, which allow business transactions to happen between Internet users and R/3 systems. With the ALE (Application Link Enabled) technology, SAP R/3 allows communication between distributed applications: R/3 R/3 systems, R/3 R/2 systems, R/3 external application systems. Using development environments such as standard ANSI C, C++, Visual Studio, Java, Delphi or Visual Basic, developers can integrate external applications with the R/3 system, exchanging information on the level of business objects.
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