Authorization Profiles in Software

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Authorization Profiles
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An authorization profile contains a group of authorizations, that is, a group of access privileges. Profiles are assigned to users in the user master records. A profile could represent a simple job position since it defines the tasks for which a user has access privileges. Every profile might have as many access privileges (authorizations) as desired. Profiles can contain authorization objects and authorizations. Changing the list or contents of the authorizations inside a profile affects all users that are given that profile when this is activated. It becomes effective the next time the user logs on. The change is not effective for users currently logged on.
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Composite profiles are sets of authorization profiles, both simple and composite. A composite profile can contain an unlimited number of profiles. They can be assigned to users just as profiles in the user master records are. Composite profiles are suitable for users who have different responsibilities or job tasks in the system. These profiles are sometimes known as reference profiles for assigning a larger group of access privileges and having the possibility to better match users with several responsibilities. Making modifications to any of the profiles in the list included in the composite profile directly affects the access privileges of all users having that composite profile in the user master record. When displaying profiles on the different SAP screens, there is a flag indicating whether the profile is simple or composite.
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The R/3 system uses authorizations to define the permitted values for the fields of an authorization object. An authorization might contain one or more values for each field of the authorization object. An authorization object is like a template for testing access privileges, consisting of authorization fields which finally define the permitted values for the authorization. Both authorization objects and fields are explained in the next two sections. An authorization is identified with the name of an authorization object and the name of the authorization created for the object. An authorization can have many values or ranges of values for a single field. It is also possible to authorize for every value (by entering an asterisk, *) or for none (by leaving the field blank). In the example shown in Fig. 9 9, you can see that for the object, Batch processing: Batch administrator, there are several authorizations. Each of these authorizations can have different values for the authorization fields within the object.
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Figure 9 9: Example of authorization list for an authorization object. Authorizations are entered in authorization profiles with the corresponding authorization object. When an authorization is changed and then activated, it immediately affects all users having a profile containing that authorization in their user master records. 323
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Authorization Objects The technical names for authorizations and authorization objects have a maximum of 12 positions, but usually they are displayed in the system using short descriptive texts. For customer created authorizations, the only name restriction is to not place an underscore in the second position of the technical name. Additionally, every customer created system object should comply with SAP standard style guide and begin either with a Z or a Y to distinguish it from the SAP original objects, thus avoiding the possibility of being overwritten by a system upgrade.
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An authorization object identifies an element or object within the SAP system which needs to be protected. These objects work like templates for granting access rights by means of authorization fields which allow for performing complex tests of access privileges. An authorization object can contain a maximum of 10 authorization fields. Users are permitted to perform a system function only after passing the test for every field in the authorization object. The verification against the field contents is done with the logical AND operator. Users' actions are allowed only if the user authorization complies with the access test for each field contained in an object. With this mechanism, the system can perform multiconditional tests. As with authorizations, when maintaining authorization objects, the system does not display the names but descriptive text for each object. Authorization objects are grouped in object classes belonging to different application areas which are used to limit the search for objects, thus making it faster to navigate among the many R/3 system objects. SAP predefined authorization objects should not be modified or deleted, except if instructed by the SAP support personnel or a SAPnet note. Deleting or changing standard authorization objects can cause severe errors in the programs that check those objects. Before an authorization object is modified, all authorizations defined for that object must first be deleted. If you want to use the OR logic to give users access to certain functions, you can define several authorizations for the same object, each time with different values. In the user master records, you assign each of these profiles, which are linked with the OR login. So, when the system tests whether the user has access privileges, it checks each authorization to see if the assigned values comply with the access condition. The system allows access with the first authorization that passes the test.
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