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Figure 11 21: Example of buffered program objects. Tuning buffers is critical to improve the system performance. The first advice is to buffer as much data as possible because it will reduce physical database accesses which are more costly than memory accesses. At the same time, buffering reduces the network traffic between application servers and the database server. Optimal buffer sizes depend on many factors such as the system sizing, average workload, database system, operating system resources, and so on. Tuning buffers is a matter of constant monitoring and periodical adjustments as required by the system performance evolution. While small buffers can cause many object swaps and physical database accesses, large sizes can cause costly operating system paging. In any case, as more physical memory is available, the better the buffers can be tuned. All the buffer sizes can be tuned by setting the corresponding instance profile parameters. The CCMS profile maintenance tool can help to check the consistency of the buffers and memory pools. Buffers should not be adjusted too often due to special workload circumstances such as large initial data loads or long end of period running reports. You can see the current buffer parameters by clicking on the Current parameters button on the application toolbar of the buffer overview screen.
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Database Performance Monitor for the Oracle Database
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The database performance monitor performs extensive checks on the database system allowing for comprehensive analyzing and monitoring. The performance collectors constantly feed the database statistics tables with historical and statistical information about the database. This information can be accessed from any application server on the system. Administrators should use this performance monitor for the following tasks: Checking the current database component sizes and the space critical objects Looking for lost indexes either in the ABAP dictionary or the database Displaying a forecast of database storage needs Analyzing performance problems in the database 420
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Database Performance Monitor for the Oracle Database Getting data for tuning programs with database access To quickly detect and react to database problems, you should define database alert thresholds which can be monitored online and graphically from the alert monitors. These database monitors have been fully programmed by SAP in ABAP to feature a common set of monitoring and performance utility tools for analyzing the database system. In the case of the Oracle database, SAP uses the information provided by the database engine in its many system views and tables, known as dynamic performance tables or V$ tables. The performance menu includes four menu options for the database: Activity. It's the main entry point, and from the many functions and menu options available you can access all the database performance functions. Exclusive lock waits. It's the function for analyzing whether a process is exclusively holding a lock and other processes are locked waiting for the resource held by the other process. Tables / indexes. This option shows the summary information about the database structure, number of files, missing indexes, tablespace growth, statistics, and so on. Figure 11 22 shows this screen.
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Figure 11 22: Initial screen for the State on disk option within the database performance monitor. Parameter changes. This is the function which keeps records on any database parameter modifications in the configuration file init<SID>.ora. To access the database performance information, from the initial performance menu, select Database Activity. Alternatively, enter transaction code ST04 in the command field. The system displays a summary overview of the database activity, as shown in Fig. 11 23.
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Figure 11 23: Summary overview of database performance analysis. The summary information provided by the database performance monitor includes the most important indicators for the Oracle database. You need some previous knowledge of the Oracle database to understand each of these indicators. An overview of the Oracle database architecture is presented in Chap. 15. As a brief introduction, these indicators are as follows: Data buffer. It's the buffer which holds the Oracle blocks in shared memory. The main indicator to watch is the Quality which should approach 100 percent for optimal performance. When an Oracle process requests a data block and is already found in memory, the quality improves. Shared pool. It's an area within the Oracle SGA (system global area) which holds several memory structures as the data dictionary cache and the shared SQL statements. It's an important area since the possibility to reuse SQL statements because they are already in memory can improve performance. The quality of these indicators is better closer to 100 percent. Log buffer. Contains information about the changes being made to the database before the Oracle log writer process (LGWR) writes the buffer information into the online redo log files. For better performance, allocation fault rates should be as close to 0 percent as possible. Calls. Displays the number and type of calls that the SAP processes request to the Oracle database. Table Scans. This is an indicator of how data is being accessed. A table scan is a sequential access that occurs when the database must read all the data blocks from a table on disk. A large number might degrade performance. Since this type of access does not use an index, which is acceptable when tables are small (short tables), but not when the amount of data is large. In this case, an index should be preferable, and you should analyze the SQL statements and the possibility of creating indexes for these tables. Table scans are alerts indicators. The default threshold value is 10 table scans every 10 seconds. The number of table scans should be reduced as much as possible. Can be caused by missing indexes in the database or incorrect SQL statements. Table Fetch (Oracle). Table fetches are indexed accesses to the database, where Oracle performs the search by the rowID of the data block containing the data. Sorts (Oracle). Indicates the total number of rows and whether the sorts were performed in memory or disk. Sorting is a common operation of the SQL statements when they need to order the results of a query or join operation or an index creation. Sorting degrades performance but it is a necessary feature. It is better doing the sorting in memory than on disks. From the overview display, you can also access the performance history database by clicking on the Previous days button on the application toolbar.
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Database Performance Monitor for the Oracle Database To display the full featured performance and information functions, click on the Detail analysis menu button on the application toolbar. From this detailed screen, you can access a vast information store about the database. This section briefly discusses only some of the available options which are used more often. For the other functions, please refer to the SAP online documentation and the database reference manuals. To give you an idea of how much information the system holds, you can display any of the Oracle dynamic performance tables (V$ tables) by clicking on the Display V$ values button. One of the most useful options for getting detailed information about the database structure is selecting Database Tables/indexes from the initial performance monitoring menu (Fig. 11 23). From here you can check things such as lists of missing indexes, detailed table and table spaces analyses, and space statistics, including forecasts based on the utilization statistics stored in the performance database.
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