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The R/3 system uses some widely known terms to which SAP gives specific meanings. This section includes some of those terms, needed for a clear understanding of the architecture of SAP R/3.
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Transaction
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Generally, a transaction is an operation that lets a user make changes to a database. The overall R/3 system must be seen as a business transaction processing system. This means that the whole data flow that runs across application modules is executed using transactions. In the SAP system, a transaction is a sequence of related steps. These logically related steps, known as dialog steps, are screens in which data is introduced causing the generation of other events. There is a special 37
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Dialog Step transaction monitor, the SAP dispatcher, which takes care of handling the sequence of those steps. The final task of a transaction is to modify the information which ultimately goes into the database. The database is not updated until a transaction has finished. For the sake of consistency, if the transaction has not finished, all changes are still reversible. The transactions usually contain two phases: an interactive phase and an update phase. The interactive phase may be at least one step, but can have many. This phase is responsible for preparing the database records that can update the database. The update phase may have no steps or many. This phase processes the previously prepared records and updates the database. Since many users have the ability to access the same information, in order for the transactions to be consistent, there is a lock mechanism engaged during the time it takes to process the transaction. All the transactions in the R/3 system have an associated transaction code. A fast and useful way to move around the R/3 system is by typing the transaction code directly in the command field of an R/3 window. The available transaction codes are held in table TSTC. To see this table, from the main screen menu, select the following options from the menu bar in this sequence: Tools ABAP Workbench Development Other Tools Transactions. Or, type SE93 in the command field. Then click on the possible list arrow (the down arrow to the right of the field). 5 deals with the basics of using and moving around the R/3 system both with menus and with transaction codes. A fast way to specify table entries is by using transaction SE16 (Data Browser) and entering the table name in the input field.
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A dialog step is a SAP R/3 screen, which is represented by a dynpro. A dynpro, or dynamic program, consists of a screen and all the associated processing logic. It contains field definitions, screen layout, validation and processing logic, and so forth. A dialog step is controlled exactly by a dynpro. The processing logic means that the dynpro controls what has to be done before the screen is displayed (process before output, or PBO) and what has to be done after the user finishes entering information (process after input, or PAI). When users are navigating in the SAP R/3 system from screen to screen, they are actually making dialog steps. A set of dialog steps makes up a transaction.
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Logical Units of Work (LUWs)
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Conceptually, a logical unit of work (LUW) is defined as an elementary processing step which works as a locking mechanism to protect the transaction's integrity. A LUW is a set of steps within a transaction, and all of those steps must be correctly completed to go ahead with the transaction logic. If there are errors before the end of the transactions, the current LUW is canceled, but not the previous ones. Within the SAP system, three conceptually different types of transactions may be distinguished: A database transaction, known as LUW or database LUW, is the period of time in which the operations requested must be performed as a unit. This is known in the database world as an all or nothing operation. At the end of the LUW, either the database changes are committed (performed) or 38
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Clients they are rolled back (thrown away). As you can see in Fig. 2 2, there are four database transactions (database LUWs) corresponding to the period of time from the beginning of a new database operation to the DB commit operation.
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Figure 2 2: Example of SAP LUWs. An update transaction or SAP LUW is the equivalent to the database concept for the SAP systems. It means that as a logical unit, these SAP LUWs are either executed completely or not at all. Generally, a SAP LUW can have several database LUWs. The special ABAP command, COMMIT WORK, marks the end of a SAP LUW and the beginning of a new one. In Fig. 2 2, the SAP transaction or SAP LUW comprises all the database operations until the COMMIT WORK statement; in this case, it is made up of four database LUWs. A SAP transaction or ABAP transaction is made up of a set of related tasks combined under one transaction code. This concept is related more to the programming environment, in which an ABAP or SAP transaction functions like a complex object containing screens, menus, programming logic, transaction code, and so forth.
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