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Color Coding in the Global Alert Monitor
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The colors in the global alert monitor have the following meanings: Green. System is OK, without alerts. The current value is under the defined threshold. Yellow. Indicates a warning situation. The current value is slightly above the threshold, although it is not a critical problem. Red. A critical problem has occurred which can severely affect system performance. The value is above the acceptable threshold. Administrators should always analyze and solve the problem as soon as possible.
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Color Coding in the Performance Indicators
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Some of the performance monitors include special colored bars indicating the activity level of a system component in relation to the defined threshold value. Figure 12 2 shows an example of the database alert monitor with the performance indicators. (In this figure, you cannot distinguish the colors, only the levels of gray. Look it up in your own system by selecting Alerts Global Database system from the initial performance menu.) The left side of the bar represents no activity, or value 0, while the rightmost side of the bar represents the threshold value.
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Figure 12 2: Example of performance indicators in the database alert monitor. You should turn on the automatic monitoring with the Monitor on push button to refresh the performance data every 10 seconds. You may change the refresh period in multiples of 10 seconds. This is useful because the activity level is highly variable in a running system, and alert thresholds come and go frequently. In general, the colors have the following meanings: Yellow. When the whole bar is yellow, it means no activity at all; therefore, it's indicating a warning. As activity increases, the bar shows the green color on the left hand side. Green yellow. The activity of the component is below the threshold value. Green red. The activity is above the defined threshold value.
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Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds Green. This represents the current level of activity. If the whole bar turns green, it means that the level of activity is the same as the threshold value. Red. This represent the percentage by which the threshold value has been exceeded.
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Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds
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A newly installed SAP system includes a predefined set of threshold values for the alert monitors. When any of the R/3 system components exceeds the threshold value, the system triggers an alert. These predefined values might not be suitable for all installations, since there are many differences in terms of overall system and database sizing, hardware platform, operative indicators, expected availability, and so on. To suit every customer monitoring need, the CCMS includes utilities for defining the threshold values. Sometimes these values cannot be set right from system installation, but after a reasonable amount of system uptime. A periodic monitoring of the system and the maintenance of good workload statistics should help to fine tune both the system and to redefine the allowable thresholds. Responsible persons for monitoring and setting alerts should not use information from special peak situations of heavy workload, but use instead the average figures as reflected by the statistical workload information. For alert monitors 3.x, all alert thresholds are maintained either from the CCMS control panel or from the CCMS configuration menu. Both options arrive at the same transaction RZ06. For example, from the CCMS initial screen, select Configuration Alert monitor Thresholds (3.x) or select Control/Monitoring Control panel Monitoring All threshold values. The system displays a list with the application servers and the database. From this centralized utility you can either display or set the needed alert thresholds for every server (database or application). It is not necessary to log onto the specific SAP to define or display its alert thresholds. To display the current alert threshold for an instance, select one of the available instances and click on the Display button. Figure 12 3 shows an example of the result.
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Figure 12 3: Alerts thresholds display. In order to set the values for the different alert thresholds within the SAP components you need a deep knowledge of the system. There is, however, the option of using the SAP default threshold values to start and fine tune it after some time of productive work. To do this, you have to define global threshold values for the database and the network, as well as specific server thresholds for the operating system, buffer, system log, 427
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Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds performance, and other general R/3 system alerts. In the case of database thresholds, click on the database server line and press Change. Then, in next screen, press Set to SAP defaults or set your own thresholds. To define the server thresholds from the Maintain Alert Thresholds screen, click on the server line and then press Change. Figure 12 4 shows the resulting screen. In the application toolbar there are four options: Copy from server. With this option the system displays a list of servers plus the <SAP default> settings, which you can use to copy any of the existing alert threshold values to the current server. If any of the alert thresholds are not defined, the copy will not be performed. The <SAP default> values cannot be changed. Clear thresholds. This option will delete all the alert threshold values defined in this server except for the <SAP default>. Copy to selected srv. With this option you can copy the alert threshold values from the current server to any other system server which you can select from a following dialog box. Set to SAP defaults. Using this option will set all the alert thresholds to the <SAP default> predefined values.
Figure 12 4: Alerts thresholds initial maintenance screen. There are two groups of thresholds: global and per server. The global thresholds are a set of values which are unique for the whole SAP system, such as the database and the network. The per server thresholds can be individually set for every server instance. When in any of the alert types for the per server thresholds, you always have the option to copy other server values or SAP defaults values as previously defined. The next sections include a brief summary of some of the most important threshold alerts for each alert type. On this screen you can also see five push buttons that can take you to the corresponding alert threshold maintenance screen. On these screens you will always see the four previously explained options on the application toolbar, as shown in Fig. 12 4. Database Alert Thresholds Database alert thresholds are specific to the underlying database system used by the SAP system. In this section, only the Oracle databases are covered. There are several input fields for specifying database alerts, and all of them are important. The following, 428
Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds however, is just a list of the most common. For more information on the other fields, please refer to the SAP online documentation. Figure 12 5 also shows the database alert threshold options, which are as follows: Refresh Alert Monitor in 10 sec Interval. This parameter appears in some of the other monitors and is used for specifying the time interval in which the database alert monitor will refresh the display when the monitor is turned on. If the value is 3, the database monitor will refresh the display every 30 seconds. This parameter is quite important since other alerts will make statistical performance calculations based on the time frame specified here. Quality %. This parameter indicates the percentage of the database buffer reads against total reads. SAP recommends setting an alert if the value is less than 75 percent. By default it is set to 90 percent. Disk under the Sorts box. This indicates the number of sorts for every refresh interval. The number should normally be less than 10 percent of the sorts performed in memory since disk sorts negatively affect the system performance. Remaining Space In Archive (KB). Indicate here the value under which the system should trigger an alert if there is less space in the file system containing the Oracle archived redo log files. The directory is normally /oracle/<SID>/saparch. If this file system becomes full, you will get an archiver stuck error. Using BrBackup (1 > Yes, 0 > No). Set this flag to 0 in case you are deploying a backup strategy which is not based on the SAP standard BRBACKUP utility for Oracle databases. Otherwise, you will be getting a continuous red alert. If you do use BRBACKUP, leave this value at 1. Most Recent Backup Age Allowed (in days). Enter here the number of days for which an alert will be triggered in case the date for the most recent successful backup exceeds this value. This only applies when using BRBACKUP.
Figure 12 5: Database alerts thresholds maintenance options. Network Alert Thresholds To maintain the network alert thresholds, select Edit Additional threshold Network threshold from the Maintain Alert Thresholds screen. With the network alert thresholds you can have your system network segments monitored. When selecting this option, additional to the refresh time interval, the system presents three initial options for creating, deleting, or modifying network segments: Change Segment. The system presents a dialog box with the available segments. Select one network segment and the system will display the alert values which you can further maintain. You can always copy the threshold values from the predefined <Default> segment.
Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds Create Segment. With this option you can define a set of alert threshold values for a new network segment by entering the name and TCP/IP address of the segment. After entering the information the system displays the alert maintenance screen. Delete Segment. Use this option to delete the alert threshold values for an existing segment. The network alert threshold maintenance screen includes many technical parameters for triggering either yellow or red alerts relating to the use and quality of the network packages in the SAP R/3 communications. You should contact your network administrator for fine tuning and defining these alerts, or use SAP default values. Operating System Alert Thresholds The operating system alert maintenance screen displays the alert thresholds for several monitors within the CCMS. Figure 12 6 shows this screen.
Figure 12 6: Operating system alerts thresholds maintenance options. The following operating system alert options are some of the most common: CPU Load Ave / Min. Enter here in units of 100 the number of processes per minute allowed in the CPU queue. In the Fig. 12 6, the red alert is triggered if there is an average of four processes per minute in the CPU queue. Free Memory (MB). Enter here in number of megabytes the amount of memory which can be left free before the system triggers the alert. In Fig. 12 6, if there is less than 7 megabytes of memory free, the system will generate an alert. Utilization %. The monitor will generate an alert if the swap space used is higher than this figure. Min. Free Space (MB). This is under the Swap box. The system will trigger an alert if the swap space is less than the percentage entered in this field. Notice that with the extended memory management functions from version 3.0 onward, swap space can now be further used by the work processes. File System Name. The File system alerts box includes a table where you can enter the file systems you want to display in the monitors. This file system will be monitored in relation with utilization and free space parameters. % Used. This is the utilization parameter for the file system specified previously. Enter here the percentage amount over which an alert will be triggered if the used spaced exceeds this figure. When this value is reached, first the monitor generates a yellow alert. If the used space surpasses this figure by 10 percent, a red alert is triggered.
Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds Min. Free Space (MB). The system will trigger an alert when a file system has less free space than the value specified in this field. This value in megabytes indicates the minimum free space in a file system before triggering the alert. Performance Alert Thresholds The performance alert thresholds include some basic and important value indicators for the R/3 work process types on every instance. If any of the application servers do not have these alert threshold values defined, the system uses the SAP default values. There are the alert indicators: Response Time. In this column enter the acceptable response time in number of milliseconds for the different work process types. For both the dialog and update work processes, a good response time should be less than 1000 milliseconds (1 second). An average response time of less than 1.5 seconds for dialog work processes should also be acceptable for installations with many network WAN connections. Wait Time. The wait time is the time a user request spends in the SAP dispatcher queue before being processed by a work process. SAP recommends that a good value for the wait time should be less than 1 percent of the response time, for example 10 milliseconds. Run Time. Enter in this column the number of milliseconds for an acceptable runtime of a work process before it generates an alert.
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