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The Dispatcher Process
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The SAP dispatcher is the control program which manages the resources of the R/3 applications. It works like a typical transaction monitor which receives screens and data from the presentation services and passes them to the corresponding work processes. Figure 2 4 illustrates this concept.
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Figure 2 4: SAP dispatcher process. The work processes are special programs in charge of some specific tasks. Using client/server terminology, a work process is a service offered by a server and requested by a client. The dispatcher manages the information exchange between the SAPGUIs or other type of presentation interface and the work processes, enabling users to share the different work processes available.
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Work Process Architecture The main tasks of the dispatcher are as follows: Balanced assignment of the transaction load to the work processes Buffer management in main memory Connection with the presentation level Organization of the communication processes The logical flow of execution of a user request follows: 1. Users enter data in their presentation server; the data is received by the SAPGUI, converted to a SAP format, and sent to the dispatcher using an special optimized protocol called DIAG. 2. Initially, the dispatcher keeps the requests in queues, where the dispatcher later processes them one by one. 3. The dispatcher allocates the user requests using the free work processes. The real execution takes place inside the work processes themselves. 4. At the end of execution, the result of the work process task goes back to the SAPGUI through the dispatcher. SAPGUI interprets the received data and fills up the user screen. SAP has optimized the data flow between the presentation and the application servers. Typically the quantity of data that goes in the network from the dispatcher to the SAPGUI does not exceed 2K (for dialog processes). This network traffic does not include the print requests that are managed by spool or print managers on users' PCs or workstations. The communication is established via standard TCP/IP sockets. The dispatcher has a special advanced program to program communication (APPC) server built into it which communicates and responds to requests submitted by the work processes. On each application server there is one dispatcher but multiple work processes. Note If an application server (hardware point of view) is running more than one SAP instance (application server, from a software point of view), there is one dispatcher for every instance.
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A work process is a program in charge of executing the R/3 application tasks. Each work process acts as a specialized system service. From the point of view of the operating system, a group of parallel work processes makes up the R/3 runtime system. As shown in Fig. 2 5, a work process consists of a task handler, a dialog or dynpro interpreter, an ABAP processor, and a database interface. The work processes execute dialog steps for the end users. These steps generally relate to the processing or display of a single screen, which means that right after one work process finishes the execution of a dialog step for a user session, it is immediately available for use by another user session.
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Work Process Architecture
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Figure 2 5: Work process architecture. For its processing, each dialog step needs code, dictionary objects, and data. These elements may come from the database server or from the memory buffers which reside on the application server. The dialog processes usually request read only information from the database and rely on other types of work processes for read write information. This is explained in the following sections. The activities within a work process are coordinated by the task handler. It manages the loading and unloading of the user session context at the beginning and end of each dialog step. It also communicates with the dispatcher and activates the dynpro interpreter or the ABAP processor as required to perform its tasks. The ABAP processor is in charge of executing the ABAP programs, while the dialog interpreter (also known as the dynpro processor) is in charge of interpreting and executing the logic of R/3 screens. The database interface allows the work processes to establish direct links with the database. The work processes might need the same data for more than one dialog step, in which case, the data is held in shared memory areas (buffers) and are available for other work processes. It must be noted that users of the same or similar R/3 business applications, such as FI (financial accounting) and CO (controlling), logging in to the same application servers will benefit from this feature, since they very often access the same tables. If these tables already reside in the buffer areas, the system doesn't have to go to the database to get them, and thus performance will be improved. Work processes make use of two special areas: paging and roll. The paging area holds application program data such as internal tables or report listings. The roll area holds the user context data entered in previous dialog steps and other control and user information such as authorizations. Where there is main memory available, these areas are held in the main memory of application servers; otherwise they are paged out or rolled out to physical disk files. The size of these areas is configurable using SAP system profile parameters. With the release of 3.0, the memory management of the SAP system changed; for instance, the paging file is no longer used except for special conditions. This new memory management concept and the associated profile parameters are discussed later in this chapter. The system shared memory areas also contain read only images of other parts of the R/3 system, such as the program or table buffers. The sizing and configuration of these buffers are very important for overall performance of the system. Refer to Chap. 11. The configuration and refresh rate of these caches are critical to the overall performance of the system. To make a more efficient use of available resources, work processes are run in parallel, which makes this architecture especially suitable for multiprocessor equipment and able to run the group of work processes distributed among different CPUs.
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Services: Work Processes Types The number of available work processes per application server is configurable using the appropriate SAP system profile parameters. The following sections include examples of such parameters. For more information about profiles, refer to the section entitled "Instances Profiles" in Chap. 4. There are several types of work processes: dialog, background, update, enqueue, and spool. Additionally, the R/3 runtime system includes three other special types of services: message service, gateway, and the system log collector. Since the work processes are in charge of executing the ABAP programs and applications, a group made of a dispatcher and a set of work processes is known as the application server.
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