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Oracle Environment Variables
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During the installation phase and during Oracle database upgrades, it is very useful to know the existing database environment variables used by SAP with Oracle. Following is a list of the main ones. Environment Variable Description ORACLE_HOME Default home directory for the database software, and also for the home path of the database administrator. ORACLE_SID Refers to the system identification of the database instance. In SAP installations where only a database instance is installed, it is the same as the SAP system identification (<SID>). SAPDATA_HOME Directory of the database files. DBS_ORA_TNSNAME Points to the database identifier 511 Standard Value /oracle/<SID>(UNIX) <drive>:\orant(Windows NT)
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$ORACLE_HOME/ <SID>
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The Parameter File init<sid>.ora <SID> from the tnsnames.ora file. ORA_NLS ORA_NLS32 ORA_NLS33 $ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls_722/admin/data $ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls_733/admin/data $ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data
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The Parameter File init<sid>.ora
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The init.ora file is the initialization and configuration file for the Oracle database. In R/3, this file is called init<sid>.ora (for example, inittt1.ora for SAP system TT1). This file is located under the dbs directory on UNIX systems and under the database directory on Windows NT systems. This file contains the system parameters that configure the database. When the database is started up, this file is read by Oracle to determine such configuration parameters as the name of the database instance, the system global area (SGA) and other database buffer sizes, the name and location of the control files, the name of the rollback segments, the number of maximum database files, and many others. There is a very long list of allowed parameters for the configuration file init.ora. Some of these parameters only work in certain operating systems. Although many of the following topics will include references to some parameters in this file, for a complete description and available options in the init.ora file, please refer to the official Oracle documentation. This is a very important file for the correct functioning of the database and should be frequently backed up. It's a critical file for tuning the database performance.
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Data Storage: Tablespaces and Data Files
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The database data is stored in logical entities known as tablespaces. Tablespaces are Oracle logical storage objects, working like folders that contain the database table data or the indexes. Every tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files located on one or several disks. The reason for this logical storage object is to increase the flexibility when managing the database allocated space. For example, a DBA can reorganize single tablespaces, back up or recover a tablespace, increase or reduce the size, put a tablespace offline, and so on. When creating a database object such as a table or an index, you always have to specify which tablespace will contain it. Every tablespace has a name and some storage parameters. Under R/3 installations, the SAP names of the tablespaces follow a certain naming convention. There is always a special tablespace called SYSTEM that contains the dictionary information of the database; that is, the data the database needs to manage itself. This tablespace cannot be taken offline during normal operation. One of the most common R/3 problems when it is not sufficiently monitored is tablespaces becoming full. The sapdba program includes all the needed utilities to manage tablespaces. Although tablespaces are the most common storage objects to deal with, there are additional storage objects in the database system. The relation among these objects is shown in Fig. 15 2. These are the other storage entities:
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The Parameter File init<sid>.ora Oracle block. It's the smallest physical storage unit in the database. The size is always a multiple of the operating system block size, so it can be different depending on the operating system. The size is defined in the parameter db_block_size in the init.ora file. In SAP installations, for performance reasons, the size is usually 8096 bytes (8K). Extent. It's a logical storage unit made up of a contiguous collection of Oracle blocks. A collection of extents is a segment. Segments. There are several types of segments in the database. Two of the most common are data segments, which contain table data; and index segments, which contain index data. There are also rollback segments, temporary segments, and bootstrap segments. When any database object is created, an initial extent is assigned to the object's segment. When the object requires additional space, more extents are allocated to the segment. The first block of the first extent contains the segment header, which itself contains the extent map and the free list information.
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Figure 15 2: Relation between storage objects The tables are the objects containing the database data. The size of the tables increases proportionally with the number of records they contain (number of rows). Indexes are objects associated with tables that are used to speed up the search and execution of SQL statements. Creating or deleting indexes does not affect the associated table. When the data in the tables is frequently modified, for example, in tables with transactional data, the index can even grow faster than the associated table. It is normally better for performance and space management reasons to maintain the index segments in separate tablespaces than the associated tables. Standard SAP installation follows this principle. Rollback segments are segments that store the "before image" of the information when a database transaction has modified that information. In case of problems, or just in the case someone changes her or his mind, this information can be used for rolling back transactions to the state they were in before the modification, and it is also used for transaction recovery. To roll back a transaction means to restore the value of a particular data block before it was modified. Temporary segments, as the name indicates, are segments that the database system uses temporarily for doing join or sort operations or for creating indexes. For large database sizes in the R/3 environment, administrators should allow extra temporary space, which can increase performance when dealing with large tables or indexes. In the SAP system, the temporary segments are stored in the tablespace PSAPTEMP. It is a common rule to assign this space a size twice as big as the size of the biggest index.
Data Storage: Tablespaces and Data Files The SAP R/3 Tablespaces The SAP naming convention for the tablespaces is PSAP<TSP><D | I>. The prefix is always PSAP, except for the SYSTEM tablespace. The <TSP> is a mnemonic name indicating the tablespace contents, and the suffix can be either D for data tablespaces or I for index tablespaces, except for the rollback and temporary segments tablespaces. Examples are PSAPBTABD and PSAPDOCUI. Table 15 1 below contains an overview of the standard R/3 tablespaces. With the sapdba tool you can create additional tablespaces, which will automatically follow the SAP naming convention.
Table 15 1: Tablespaces Under an Oracle R/3 Installation Tablespace Name Description Oracle system tablespaces. These tablespaces do not contain R/3 data but are required for the operation of the database. SYSTEM PSAPROLL PSAPTEMP Includes the internal Oracle dictionary. Contains the rollback segments. Temporary tablespace for internal processing. BASIS tablespaces. These tablespaces contain the R/3 Basis environment data. PSAPEL<rel>D/I <rel> = R/3 release PSAPES<rel>D/I PSAPLOADD/I PSAPSOURCED/I PSAPDDICD/I PSAPPROTD/I Contains loads for the development environment. Are release dependent (for example, PSAPEL45BD for release 4.5B). Contains the sources for the development environment in this release. Contains the ABAP report loads and screens. Contains the ABAP report sources and screens. Includes the ABAP dictionary. Includes control and log tables. APPLICATION tablespaces. PSAPCLUD/I PSAPPOOLD/I PSAPSTABD/I PSAPBTABD/I PSAPDOCUD/I Contains the system cluster tables. Contains the system pool tables (i.e., ATAB). Contains master data, transparent tables. Contains transaction data, transparent tables. Contains documentation tables. CUSTOMERS tablespaces. 514
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