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Introduction to Oracle Background Processes
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Introduction to Oracle Background Processes
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The Oracle processes are responsible for executing different tasks in the database system. These processes are permanently and concurrently running in the system when the database is started. The Oracle system distinguishes between user processes created for executing user applications and Oracle processes. The Oracle processes can be of two types: server processes and background processes. Server processes in two task environments are the counterpart of user processes. The background processes are the main database system processes in charge of performing the main functions of the database engine. A set of background processes together with the SGA is called an Oracle instance. The Oracle background processes perform different tasks in the database operation. The type and number of background processes running for an instance depends on the actual database configuration. The following list only reflects those common processes running in the Oracle SAP R/3 environment: Oracle listener: This process is responsible for connecting the R/3 work processes and their dedicated oracle shadow processes when they are in different nodes. This is a network connection that uses TCP/IP as communication protocol. To accept connections on the database server, the listener must be running. The Oracle utility lsnrctl (NT: lsnrctl80) is used to start and stop the listener and to check the status of SQL*Net connections. In UNIX systems, the process tnslsnr is started. On Windows NT, the service OracleTNSListener is started. The following three operating system files are used in a NET8 configuration. These files can be found in the ORACLE_HOME subdirectory network/admin (NT: net80\admin) on each application server and on the database server: tnsnames.ora. Contains a list of service names for all databases that can be accessed in the network. sqlnet.ora. Contains client side default domain information and optional diagnostic parameters used for client tracing and logging. listener.ora. Used only on database server machines. Contains Oracle system IDs for which the listener can receive connections and various control parameters used by the program lsnrctl. The default R/3 system profile should contain the entry
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dbs/ora/tnsname = <SID>
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Database writer (DBWR). It's the background process in charge of writing data blocks from the database buffer to the data files on disks. Usually the DBWR process is optimized automatically to reduce input/output to disks and only write to physical disks when requested by other transactions needing the SGA memory areas. Checkpoint (CKPT). The CKPT process sends a signal to the database writer process (DBWR) at checkpoint. It then updates the headers of the control files and data files. This process is not enabled by default. Log writer (LGWR). It's the process responsible for writing redo log entries from the redo log buffers to the online redo log files on disk. When the checkpoint process is not running, the LGWR process is also responsible for updating the headers of the control files and data files with the latest checkpoint. System monitor (SMON). This process is started automatically by Oracle when the database is started. The SMON of an instance is responsible for recovering the database after an abnormal termination, recovering, or rolling back transactions that were not processed because of the crash. It is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments that are not being used. Process monitor (PMON). The PMON process is also started automatically by the database system and is responsible for performing process recovery; for example, when a user process or a server process fails. It also cleans and releases any resources that were being used by the failed processes. 518
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Startup and Shutdown of the Oracle Database Archiver (ARCH). The ARCH is only present when the database operates with automatic archiving. This process is responsible for copying the redo log files to the archive area (disk or tape) before they are overwritten by a new redo log file. This only happens, though, if the ARCHIVELOG mode is set, which is the default and recommended state in R/3 installations, and the only way to perform point in time (partial) database recoveries. Other Oracle processes which are not normally found on current releases and without the OPS option in R/3 installations are the Lock (LCKn), Dispatcher (Dnnn), Recoverer (RECO), and the Server (Snnn) processes. For more information about these processes and others, refer to the actual Oracle documentation. Oracle databases under Windows NT use the thread implementation. This is a similar concept to the processes on UNIX systems. The most visible difference between the platforms is that on Windows NT systems all Oracle processes except the listener form a single Oracle process. In Windows NT, the Oracle listener is normally started as a service called OracleTNSListener, which enables all network communications.
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