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For administering the Oracle database, SAP provides the sapdba utility, which greatly simplifies the tasks involved when managing the database. With sapdba, you can perform practically all functions required in an R/3 installation concerning the underlying database. It is even possible for administrators without a deep knowledge of the svrmgrl tool to be able to perform almost all the needed tasks. Another advantage of using sapdba for database administration is that all actions performed with the tool are logged, so that the system keeps a record that can be checked for reviewing the operations that have been performed. The sapdba utility is needed for performing functions that actually cannot be run within R/3; therefore, they are run at the operating system level, normally with user ora<sid>, which is created by SAP as part of a standard R/3 installation under Oracle. The SAP administrator account at the operating system level, <sid>adm, can also be used for performing certain database actions (not the privileged ones), but in order to do that you have to change the permissions for the sapdba program and, if it does not exist (although this is typically done in the installation), create the user OPS$<SID>adm as identified externally at the database level. The correct permissions for the sapdba program are:
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To set these permissions, log onto the database server at the operating system level, with root privileges, and perform the following operations: (Example for system TT1:)
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# # # # cd /usr/sap/TT1/SYS/exe/run chmod 4755 sapdba chown oratt1 sapdba chgrp dba sapdba
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To create OPS$<SID>adm as identified externally at the database level, the parameter OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=OPS$ must first be defined in profile init<SID>.ora. Then you have to connect to the database as internal and perform the following operations: (Example for system TT1:)
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svrmgrl> create user ops$ttladm identified externally default tablespace psapuserld temporary tablespace psamptemp; svrmgrl> grant dba, connect, resource to ops$ttladm;
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You can only run the sapdba utility from the host where the database system was installed. For the correct management of the database, there are a couple important environment variables that must be set. These variables are defined in the login script files of the database administration user (ora<sid>): ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID.
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In order to control and manage the data access, the Oracle database includes a record of internal database users. Database users can be created with the standard Oracle tools, as well as granting or revoking accesses, privileges, and so on, to enhance the system security. Normally, the R/3 installation does not need to create internal database users. In fact, when R/3 is first installed, the database system includes the standard privileged users sys and system. Additionally, R/3 creates the SAPR3 Oracle database user, which is the owner of all SAP R/3 objects. 522
Command Mode sapdba To connect to the database, you must always enter a user name and password, except when the password is the system standard. When the sapdba utility connects to the database, by default, it uses the Oracle user system, which has full privileges for starting and stopping the database, creating and deleting database objects, recovering the database, and so on. For directions on how to create Oracle users, please refer to the official database administration guides. So, if you haven't changed the system password (manager) during the R/3 database password change phase, you can start the sapdba program with full privileges by entering the sapdba command at the operating system prompt:
orattl> sapdba
Figure 15 4 shows the sapdba initial menu screen.
Figure 15 4: The initial menu of sapdba. If you don't use the standard system password, you have to enter a password when calling sapdba. The following options are available for starting sapdba and specifying DBA users other than the standard: oratt1>sapdba u<user>/<password> With this command, you specify a privileged database user different from the standard user system. However, you should avoid using the u option, since the user and password are visible and displayable in the process list. You can also use the u option with the format sapdba u oratt1> sapdba l <user>/<password> It is also used for entering sapdba with a different DBA user than the standard. This is the option to use when launching sapdba with the UNIX cron utility, for example. The difference from the u option is that the password is not visible in the process list, although it is visible when entered interactively. oratt1>sapdba U internal/<password> With the U option, you start the database as the superuser internal.
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