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Considerations Before Performing Reorganizations
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Although reorganization is not a really difficult process, you must take all the precautions necessary for its successful completion; and, in case it doesn't complete successfully, you should be able to restore the status of the database to what it was before the reorganization. For this reason, you should consider the following before performing reorganizations: 546
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Speeding Up Reorganizations Be sure to analyze whether the reorganization is really needed and that you cannot avoid it using some of the methods described earlier about changing storage parameters. Decide on the type of reorganization to perform: single objects, list of objects, tablespace, or tablespace with data files. An alternative type is to perform a reorganization of the full database by doing full export and import. This is described in following sections about export/import procedures. Check your system limits and resources: be sure to know your operating system and database parameters, such as the Oracle block size and storage limits, and also be sure to have sufficient space in the work directory (sapreorg) for holding the files generated during reorganizations. When reorganizing tablespaces without data files, you should also be sure that the tablespaces to hold reorganized objects have enough free space, for example, when you are going to use reorganizations to move database objects to different tablespaces. Reorganization will require you to stop the SAP system, thus causing downtime. Usually, these processes must be performed out of normal working hours or on weekends, so try to bundle your reorganizations to avoid further system downtime. Since certain reorganizations might take a long time, be sure to allow a sufficient time window, considering the time it might take to get the database back to its state before the reorganization in case of severe errors. To get a time estimate, you can check if a similar reorganization has been performed before by looking at the main log reorg<SID>.log. To shorten the time, try to carefully follow some recommendations on speeding up reorganizations. Refer to the following section. Perform a backup or follow the SAP recommended backup concept for reorganizations, which you can find in the online documentation. This concept basically recommends that you perform a full backup before tablespace reorganizations, and, in the case of single object reorganizations such as tables or indexes, you could, instead of a backup, perform a previous import for the objects, which is also a secure way of protecting the data. The backup concept also applies after the reorganization; for instance, you should also perform a backup after a database structural change, such as the reorganization of tablespaces with data files. For special tablespace reorganizations, besides following the general recommendations, try to find related notes on SAPnet. Special tablespaces are, for example, PSAPTEMP and PSAPPOOLD. You can find a few notes relating to problems encountered by users when reorganizing these special tablespaces. Finally, you must stop the SAP system to run reorganizations. The database must be up and running. It should be started in privileged mode (restricted) to avoid other users logging in. It is recommended you start a reorganization right after starting the database, since no locks will yet exist on the database objects.
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Speeding Up Reorganizations
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Certain types of reorganizations might need long running times to complete. In those cases, you can try to use several methods to speed them up. Please be careful when using some of these methods, and, especially when changing parameter values in some initialization files, do not forget to set them back to their original values. There are many possible procedures to speed up reorganizations. Changing Certain init<sid>.ora Parameters Besides changing the setup of rollback segments, which is described elsewhere, there are two parameters that might beneficially influence the time it takes for carrying out a reorganization. These parameters are sort_area_size and db_file_multi_block_read_count. The sort_area_size parameter will be used to speed up sorting processes while reorganizing. As recommended by SAP in the official documentation, you increase the value for sort_area_size to 8,388,608 (1024 buffers of 547
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Speeding Up Reorganizations 8K blocks each). The db_file_multi_block_read_count parameter indicates the number of blocks that can be read or written per database operation. SAP recommends increasing this value to 64. To change these values, stop the database system, edit the init<sid> .ora file and make a copy of those lines with the original values, then comment out one of them using the number sign (#) at the beginning of the line and modify the value in the copied line. Then start up the database again for the values to become active. When the reorganization has finished, and before starting productive operation of the SAP system, set back the original values by deleting the new added lines and removing the comments from the original ones. Temporarily Disabling the Archive Log Mode Because the reorganization uses export and import procedures, there might be a lot of transactions (in the import phase) going on in the database, which can generate many archive redo logs. So, before long reorganizations (full database, big tablespaces, ATAB, or other long tables), you should probably disable the archive log mode if the SAP backup concept is to be strictly followed. Otherwise, you might get redo log file gaps and affect the recovery procedures. Disabling archive log modes offers the advantages of minimizing the input/output generated by the archiver process, avoiding possible archiver stuck problems, and you will not need to back up extra archive logs. After a reorganization is finished, a full backup is mandatory, and the archive log mode must be enabled again before starting productive operation of the SAP system. The commit=no Option and the Big Rollback Segment These two recommendations are the ones that have shown a reduction of time for a long reorganization of about one third and even one fourth. In certain Oracle versions, and especially when importing long records, the import tool performs a commitment of changes for every record, instead of getting the full array of records with the exp_imp_buffer value. So when performing a reorganization that involves long records (i.e., ATAB), manually change the import script's commit=yes parameter to commit=no. For this trick to be much more effective, you should also create a new and big rollback segment of at least the size of the longest table in a tablespace. You can determine this size by issuing the following svrmgrl command:
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svrmgr1> select max (bytes) from dba_segments where tablespace_name = '<tablespace name>' and segment_type = 'table';
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Then you will have to create the tablespace to hold the big rollback segment, the rollback segment itself, and put it online. If possible, place the new tablespace in a different disk volume as other sapdatas. You can do this also from the svrmgrl tool:
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svrmgr1> create tablespace PSAPBIGROLL datafile '/oracle/<SID>/sapdata7/bigroll_1/bigroll.data1' size>; svrmgr1> create rollback segment BIGROLL tablespace PSAPBIGROLL storage (INITIAL <size/10> NEXT <size/10> OPTIMAL <size/5>; svrmgr1> alter rollback segment BIGROLL online;
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Speeding Up Reorganizations Next, with the SAP system stopped but not the database, set offline all other rollback segments except for SYSTEM and BIGROLL:
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svrmgr1> alter rollback segment PRS_1 offline; ... svrmgr1> alter rollback segment PRS_n offline;
Edit the init<sid>.ora file to comment out the rollback_segments line (usually one of the last in the file) and, in its place, write down your created rollback segment:
rollback_segments = (BIGROLL).
Stop and start the database for the new parameter to be effective. After the reorganization, set back all the usual rollback segments online (PRS_1, PRS_2 ) before putting offline BIGROLL. Change back the init<sid>.ora parameters and stop and start the database again. If you think you might need this procedure several times, you can leave the big rollback segment off line and commented out for other occasions. Otherwise, you might drop the tablespace and then delete the associated datafile. Performing Processes in Parallel The most time consuming processes of a reorganization occur mainly in the export/import phase but also when generating the indexes for very long tables. The sapdba system supports performing several processes in parallel in any of those phases. To do that, you have to set up the degree of parallelism for these processes in the init<sid>.dba profile file. The degree of parallelism sets the number of parallel processes that will be running for performing a specific action. It should not be higher than 2 or 3 times the number of CPUs of the database server. To set a default degree of parallelism for the export/import process, set the profile parameter exp_imp_degree to a value higher than 1. To set a default degree of parallelism for the index creation process, set the profile parameter index_degree to a value higher than 1. By default, both parameters are set to 1. In any case, you can interactively enter the degree of parallelism for index creation in the available reorganization type menu options. It does not make sense to set a degree of parallelism for reorganizing single objects. Warning Do not confuse performing several processes in parallel which are meant for the same reorganization with performing parallel reorganizations, that means launching different reorganizations. You should never perform more than one reorganization in parallel. Miscellaneous Tricks There are other possibilities to decrease the time it takes for reorganizations to complete, although the improvement by these miscellaneous tricks are hard to measure. These possibilities are as follows: Extending the temporary segment tablespace PSAPTEMP. This tablespace should be large enough to hold the largest database index. This is a good practice, not only for reorganizations, but also in normal operation. Temporarily disabling disk mirroring. Depending on the disk mirroring technology, whether this is performed by software or hardware, it takes some CPU time. Temporarily disabling disk mirroring could provide a small increase in performance; however, you should balance the consequences. Increasing processes priority. Using operating system utilities, you can find which processes run the 549
Running Reorganizations reorganizations (for example, the imp program and the shadow Oracle process) and you might manually increase the priority of the associated processes. Please handle process priority changes with care. In some UNIX operating systems, this is achieved with the nice and renice commands. In Windows NT systems you can do this from the Task Manager.
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