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Step 5: R/3 Installation Notes
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SAP, as well as any other information technology provider, supplies last minute information and problem corrections through the SAPnet R/3. 67
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Step 6: Adapting Systems to SAP Requirements Before proceeding with the installation you must get the current installation notes. The actual note numbers depend on what release version you are installing, and they can be found in your SAP installation manual. If you don't have a user account to access SAPnet, contact your local SAP office and request the notes. They will send them to you by fax. For example, for releases 4.0B and 4.5B and platforms UNIX and NT, Table 3 1 indicates the R/3 notes numbers, although you might require more as indicated in the installation manual or referred to within these notes.
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Table 3 1: R/3 Installation Notes Note Number 4.0B 4.5B Note Title 98711 134135 R/3 Installation on Windows NT (general information) 91700 134107 R/3 Installation on Windows NTAdabas database 98717 134159 R/3 Installation on Windows NTDB2 98715 134105 R/3 Installation on Windows NTInformix 91703 134073 R/3 Installation on Windows NTMS SQL Server 98714 134070 R/3 Installation on Windows NTOracle Database 101315 142990 R/3 Installation on UNIX 100125 137480 R/3 Installation on UNIXOS Dependencies 149066 143047 R/3 Installation on UNIXAdabas Database 101316 143052 R/3 Installation on UNIXDB2 Universal Database 101317 143039 R/3 Installation on UNIXInformix Database 101318 142996 R/3 Installation on UNIXOracle Database 80266 Installation of NT Application Servers in a UNIX Environment SAP notes are updated constantly. If you have the notes from previous installations or from someone else, you should still obtain the latest, unless the note modification date (which is referred to in the field Set by at the beginning of the note) is exactly the same. At this stage before the actual installation has started, you might find it difficult to understand some of the concepts and requirements included in the notes, but try to follow them. They usually contain instructions for all supported operating systems, but you just have to pay attention to your particular one. Occasionally, you will find everything is OK by default and there are no additional corrections to do. (Do not count on it.)
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Step 6: Adapting Systems to SAP Requirements
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For most supported operating systems, SAP R/3 requires that some settings and parameters be modified in order for R/3 to successfully install and run. These parameters are included in the SAP installation guide, OS Dependencies, and last minute adjustments can be found on the latest R/3 notes. The values reflected in the manuals must be carefully checked and strictly complied with.
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Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems Very possibly you will have to restart or reboot your system for the parameters to take effect. For UNIX systems, there is a memlimits tool that can be used for checking swap space, heap size, address space per process, and other measurements. This tool can be found on the SAP kernel CD ROM within the compressed file SAPEXE.CAR. To extract the tool use the following command, substituting <SAPCD> for your mount point where the kernel CD is mounted, and <OS> with the name used for the UNIX option:
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/<SAPCD>/UNIX/<OS>/CAR xf /<SAPCD>/UNIX/<OS>/SAPEXE.CAR memlimits
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Then execute the memlimits tool until no errors are found. This might require adjustment of the kernel parameters. On Windows NT systems some of the installation preparations include the adjustment of the NT cache for maximizing performance for network applications, the installation of some dynamic link libraries (DLLs), and the installation of the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) on release 4.5. On distributed NT environments, this is also a good time for setting up a central transport host.
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Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems
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This step consists of distributing the required file systems into the available physical space (hard disks). For productive installation, this can be the crucial factor for a successful installation and for avoiding performance problems. This procedure will require some thinking, since the configuration and distribution of disks will impact such important aspects of the installation as the data security, performance, application server distribution, and growth estimates. In SAP R/3 environments, it is highly recommended that the chosen operating system be able to easily reconfigure the available disk space. The minimum sizes for the required file systems can be found in the corresponding installation manual, as well as in the command files <filename>.R3S, which will be copied to the hard disk when installing the R3SETUP tool. Before actual installation, users have the option of modifying those sizes by editing the R3S command files. From now on, the SID (SAP system identification) chosen in step 3 will be widely used, since it will be part of the name of most file systems and directories. The needed file systems can be classified into two types: database dependent and database independent file systems. The database independent file systems contain the directories needed by the system global SAP data and executables and the SAP instance specific files and links. These file systems are as follows: / usr / sap / transThis is the global directory for all SAP servers belonging to the same SAP system group. It is used for transports among the systems. SAP upgrades also use this directory. / sapmnt / <SID>Systemwide data for one SAP system. Normally this directory will be physically located on the central instance and its subdirectories exported via NFS to application servers in the case of UNIX systems. On Windows NT, sapmnt is the share name for the global directory \ usr \ sap, which is accessed by the UNC \ \SAPGLOBALHOST\sapmnt. SAP directory structure is further explained in the next chapter.
Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems / usr / sap / <SID>Instance specific data with links to the system wide data. On Windows NT, saploc is the share name for the instance specific directory \usr\sap, which is accessed by the UNC \ \SAPLOCALHOST\saploc. In the case of ORACLE databases, the database dependent file systems are as follows: / oracle / stage / stage_<vno> (on UNIX systems) or \ORANT (on Windows NT systems)Directory for installation and upgrades of the Oracle database software. vno stands for version number. / oracle / <SID>Location for the Oracle instance SID. Notice that in Oracle terms, an instance is the name of a database. For non SAP installations, Oracle can have many instances. However, in SAP installations, the Oracle instance and the SAP system name are the same and only one. Note It is possible to install two SAP instances on one server. However, this is not recommended by SAP in productive operation and requires special instructions. / oracle /<SID>/ origlogAOriginal set of first member of Oracle redo log files / oracle /<SID>/ origlogBOriginal set of second member of Oracle redo log files / oracle /<SID>/ mirrlogAMirrored set of first member of Oracle redo log files / oracle /<SID>/ mirrlogBMirrored set of first member of Oracle redo log files / oracle /<SID>/ saparchDirectory for archived log files (offline redo log files) / oracle /<SID>/ sapreorgWork directory for database reorganizations and administration / oracle /<SID>/ saptraceDirectory where the ORACLE alert and trace files are located. / oracle /<SID>/ sapbackupUsed for storing the logs generated by the BRBACKUP tool, as well as the target for backups to hard disk. / oracle /<SID>/ sapcheckContains the logs of several sapdba options such as check, analyze, or next. / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata1Directory for SAP database files / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata2Directory for SAP database files / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata3Directory for SAP database files / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata4Directory for SAP database files / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata5 up to / oracle /<SID>/ sapdata<n>Directory for SAP database files The minimum number of sapdata directories has to be created for the installation to succeed. This number depends on the R/3 version release. It is usually up to the sixth (/oracle/<SID>/sapdata6) directory. The number and size of sapdata directories is contained within the installation command file DATABASE.R3S or CENTRDB.R3S. Although it is not the goal of this book to explain the architecture of the Oracle database, a certain knowledge and experience is a requirement to install, support, and manage a SAP R/3 installation. The same applies when the database engine is Informix, Adabas D, or SQL Server. It is a good idea to have handy the ORACLE Server Administration Guide and the Error Reference Guide, since a great number of problems encountered during a daily productive operation are directly related to database errors. 14 contains information explaining the fundamental concepts needed to manage the database from the SAP R/3 point of view. The Oracle Redo Log Files The Oracle redo log files, also known as online redo logs or online archives, are special files used by Oracle to record the changes made to the database during normal operation. These are very important since they will be used in case the changes made to the database due to a recovery situation have to be reapplied. SAP by default defines four groups of redo log files and places the first and the third in one directory (/ oracle / <SID>/ origlogA) and the second and fourth in another directory (/oracle /<SID>/ origlogB). The SAP 70
Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems installation also leaves the option of having these sets of redo log files mirrored by Oracle, in which case the first directory is mirrored in / oracle /<SID>/ mirrlogA and the second one in / oracle /<SID>/ mirrlogB. This is the recommended configuration, even if the disks are also mirrored with some kind of hardware or software. The redo log files work in a round robin fashion: Oracle writes in the first one, and when this becomes full it starts with the second one until it reaches the fourth one, in which case it will start again with the first one. What happens when switching redo log files is that they are copied to the archived directory (only if the Oracle archiver process is started, which is mandatory for SAP installations). SAP default sizes for online redo logs is 20 MB each. In certain circumstances you can change this value to better fit your needs. The section entitled "Considerations for Oracle VLDBs" later in this chapter explains the effects of the redo log file sizes and explains how to change them. For performance and security reasons, SAP recommends having each redo log file system on separate disks. The following sections show other alternatives. Oracle File System Design Guidelines When distributing the available disk controllers and physical disks into the logical layout of the file systems, there are four main factors to consider: Size. This is the first and foremost figure to have in mind. For productive installations, remember the notes and guidelines from step 1. In nonproductive or test systems, just use SAP default values. Security (data integrity). To accomplish a good level of data integrity, some options are RAID systems (mirrored disks), a good backup and restore strategy, and a correct layout of certain SAP file systems, for example, the online redo log files. Performance. A file system layout in which input/output activity is divided among the largest number of disks will help maintain performance. RAID level 0 (disk concatenation or stripping) also helps. Growth. Problems of file systems filling up do arrive if they are not sufficiently spaced. Avoid this by having a good strategy (software and hardware) for easily and quickly adding more disks as it becomes necessary. The basic rules to follow to best approach these factors are as follows: Avoid mixing in the same disks file systems with a high I/O activity. Do not define SAP database related file systems together with system or swap disks. Do not mix into the same sapdata Oracle tablespaces containing the index and the data of the same tables. Installation takes care of this by default, but you have to consider it in case you make some structural changes to the database. For security reasons, do not mix the database files with the redo log files or the archive log files. If the estimated size of the database is not very large (less than 30 GB) use a mix of small and medium capacity disks so that you don't waste so much space when distributing file systems. This has the inconvenience of using up more disk controllers. The / oracle /<SID>/ saparch directory must have enough capacity to hold up enough archive files between two successful backups. This size will depend on your expected system activity. It is not recommended to be on the same disk as the sapreorg directory because, if a disk failure occurs during a reorganization, having the archiver process enabled, you can corrupt your database and will only be able to recover from the last successful backup.
Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems Optimal Configuration Having considered the previous factors, an optimal distribution of the required SAP file systems would be to have every file system in different volumes or disks (16 disks excluding operating system disks) with the required sizes, and if possible, mirrored by hardware (making a minimum of 32 disks). This, however, has some drawbacks including possible waste of disk space, since some of the file systems are quite small to take up a whole disk (such as, the online redo log files). Some alternatives are as follows: Instead of using RAID level 1 (mirrored disks), try RAID level 5 (use of parity disks). Check this out with your hardware partner. Or, just mirror the database files and the redo log files. Other file systems can be more easily recovered from backups. Put together the origlogA and mirrlogB file systems on a disk and the origlogB and mirrlogA on another disk. This way, the Oracle process will always be writing on both disks at the same time because it writes synchronously for both the original redo log and the mirrored one. If one disk becomes corrupt, there is always the second one, and Oracle can keep on working with the logical mirrored copy of the corrupted set of logs until you recover from your failure. Both the / oracle /<SID> and the / sapmnt /<SID> file systems are not especially high in I/O activity. In case of a small number of disks, these file systems could also share the same disk. Figure 3 1 shows an example of a configuration in which every file system required by SAP is located on a different volume. Figure 3 2 shows an optimal configuration from a logical point of view. It does not show the use of any RAID configured devices. There are, of course, many other possibilities depending on the particular needs of the installation and available resources. Figure 3 3 shows the minimum required configuration, which should be avoided.
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