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Service types are the server processes in charge of providing and executing the system tasks. The types of services correspond to the work processes types as described in Chap. 2. Having specialized services makes it possible to support the distribution of the workload by the R/3 system components. As a brief summary and reminder of what was explained in Chap. 2, the service types are as follows: Dialog. Perform the dialog steps or interactive processing. With the use of the CCMS operation modes, these services can automatically switch to background processing services or other services types. This is very useful when dividing daily and nightly workloads. Background. Execute programs submitted for background processing. These services can switch modes with the dialog services. Update. Execute database changes when requested by dialog or background. There are update types 1 (U1 or time critical) and 2 (U2 or noncritical). Spool. Format the data for printing and pass the print job to the host spooler system. Enqueue. Allows multiple application servers to synchronize their access to the database, maintaining consistency. It's the lock management system service. Message service. Routes messages between application servers. Since version 3.0 also uses it for licensing, there is only one message server per SAP system. Gateway. Implements the CPIC protocol. Depending on the distribution of the SAP servers, the services may be located on the same or different computers.
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Guidelines for Distributed Configurations with the R/3 System
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As with most big computing applications there is no formula which could result in a perfect setup of the system distribution right from the start. The reasons are that systems workload is not constant and that software upgrades, user population growth, and some type of technical changes always take place. SAP R/3 is no exception, and therefore the correct distribution is a matter of knowing the factors that influence the system and daily monitoring to watch the most relevant figures and take corresponding actions. A distributed SAP R/3 system is a group consisting of a database server and several application servers. At the same time, a distributed SAP R/3 system is a group of server processes (services). The following are some guidelines which can help you to plan the best approach for your R/3 system distribution. Additional information can be found in the subsequent sections of this chapter. 1. The database server is a critical point in the whole configuration: without database there is no SAP. The underlying database engine processes are the ones which ultimately access the data for reading, updating, inserting, or deleting it. This means that this server supports the biggest input/output and can become a real bottleneck for the whole system. Depending on the particular sizing and needs of each installation, there are a few things to take into consideration: Keep users from logging in to this system. You can do this by means of network configuration, a load balancing setup, or by removing the dialog processes. Leave one or two dialog processes for administrative purposes. When installing, plan the file system layout carefully, both for security and performance reasons. If your system requires a very high throughput, think of placing the database files 89
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SAP Services over several different volumes and sharing the load of the disk controllers carefully. The database server can be installed in a completely separate system, so it would not contain any of the SAP provided services. The CPU then would not have to share its resources between the database and the SAP work processes. 2. The network load between the database server and the application services can become quite high. Size your network accordingly using high speed connections, for example, FDDI, ATM, and FC, as supported by your particular hardware. Incorrect network configuration, such as connecting an application server to the database server through the access network (the same used for users' connections), causes much higher response times on that application server, mainly due to a higher database access time. This provokes an incorrect and unbalanced load distribution. 3. Common files location. When R/3 services are distributed among several application servers there is at least a couple of shared directories: one for the instances profiles (/sapmnt/<SID>/profile) and another one for the central system log on UNIX systems (/sapmnt/<SID>/global). Additionally, you have to decide whether to share the executables runtime directory /sapmnt/<SID>/exe. Very often this directory is shared by means of NFS (network file system). The advantages and disadvantages of having this directory local or network shared is discussed in a later section of this chapter. This does not apply to Windows NT systems. 4. Service distribution. Presentation services should be run only on PCs or dedicated workstations. Dialog services should be moved out of the database server and placed on the specialized dialog servers. Watch the number of available waiting dialog processes. If you have too few, users won't be able to log on. Background processes. At the very beginning of an R/3 project you don't actually know how much background job load the system will have. When starting to monitor in the productive phases, you will be able to adjust the number and placement of the needed background work processes. If might even be necessary to leave a whole application server as a specialized background server. In any case, you should be aware and use the CCMS operation modes. With the configuration of the operation modes the system can automatically switch the work process type to background during a defined period of time. For example, it is very common to make some of the dialog work processes switch to background during the night. In periods of light interactive dialog load, you may think of placing some background processes in the database server, since they will be processed faster there. The update server should be as close to the database server as possible. If the database server also includes the central instance, which is very common, leave the update server there. The message server plays an important role both for application server communication and load balancing. Think of placing this service in an application server, since it will also be called by the presentation service interface of the end users. 5. Load balancing. End users should connect to the SAP R/3 system as transparently as possible in terms of which physical application server they log on to. With the help of the message server and the SAPlogon utility, you can define instances to which the users can connect. This facility is very useful both for contingency and for a better utilization of common memory buffers. For example, if one server goes down, users can still connect to the R/3 system. 6. Printing strategy. In a distributed system, an incorrect printing strategy can turn your R/3 average response times into miserable figures if not planned correctly. In SAP systems, you should distinguish between the spool work process, in charge of formatting and sending the printing jobs to the host spooler, and the host spooler itself. 14 includes recommendations for planning the printing strategy, but consider having a dedicated server for critical print jobs. The same physical printer can be defined with different logical names, each having a different host spooler, for example. Also, you can define your PC locally attached printer to the SAP spool system. Since release 4.0, the R/3 system also includes support for defining spool servers and logical servers, making possible the definition 90
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Directory Structure of R/3 Systems and automation of load balancing for printing. 7. Backup strategy. Backup is of course a very essential part of any system implementation strategy. With distributed R/3, there are only slight differences in backup strategies for single or multiple server systems. The most important data to be backed up is the database, which is unique. There is, of course, the SAP and database runtime environment to backup. The strategy must define the procedure for recovering an application server if there is any kind of physical error. Considering that most instance data files are temporary, you should only worry about recovering the operating system and the directory structure for the instance. To be even safer, consider putting some type of disk mirroring on the application servers, which usually do not need much disk space. 8. Number of SAP instances per host. Finally, you could further distribute the services by having additional instances in a single computer server, provided you have enough CPU power and main memory. The benefits of this is that logon balancing is easier, memory can be better used, and there is more choice for service distribution. The drawbacks are that you don't have a unique SAP system number, you have to change some instance parameters, such as the central logging, and you have to maintain additional instance profiles. Additionally, if the server goes down, all the instances will go down as well.
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