ssrs barcode generator free 6: The Transport System in Software

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6: The Transport System
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The SAP R/3 system includes a collection of tools closely linked to the ABAP workbench and the customizing functions, which are very important for managing and coordinating development and customizing work within a group of SAP systems. These tools form the overall Change and Transport System (CTS). Figure 6 1 shows a typical diagram of the CTS components, which are explained throughout the following sections of this chapter.
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Figure 6 1: The change and transport system. The CTS components are in charge of performing essential functions in the overall development and customization environment, and thus in the implementation process as well as in the operation and support after productive start. Among the functions of the different CTS tools are: Administration and control of new development requests Modification and correction to repository objects Recording and auditing of all configuration settings and changes Configuration of development classes Locking of objects to avoid parallel work Version management Documentation of changes Assurance of teamwork development Transporting of objects and settings changes among systems Logging of transport results Setting the system change options Recording of where and by whom changes are made Configuration of the systems landscape Additionally, the CTS tools are extensively used and play a fundamental role in the release upgrade process and tools. The CTS components are made up of the following: Change and Transport Organizers (CTO). These are composed of transactions SE01 (transport organizer), SE09 (workbench organizer), and SE10 (customizing organizer), which are used for registering the modifications done on repository and customizing objects. Transport Management System (TMS). In distributed SAP systems environments, the Change and 156
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Overview of the Complete Process of Transporting Objects from a Source System to a Target System Transport Organizers use the Transport Management System for managing, controlling, copying, or moving, in an orderly manner, the development objects or customization settings among different SAP systems. This process is usually performed between the systems used for development and testing and the productive systems, using predefined transport routes. The transport process consists in exporting objects out of the source R/3 system and importing them into the R/3 target system. Transport tools at the operating system level. The actual transport process is performed at the operating system level using the transport tools. These tools are part of the R/3 kernel and include the program R3trans and the transport control program tp. The TMS is linked to those programs so that R/3 allows transports (exports and imports) to be performed within the system using RFC calls. Figure 6 2 shows a simple diagram of the transport process.
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Figure 6 2: Simple illustration of the transport process.
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Overview of the Complete Process of Transporting Objects from a Source System to a Target System
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The workbench organizer and the transport system are some of the most puzzling parts of the technical environment of SAP R/3; this is probably because there is no place for chaotic and unorganized software development or customization. They are actually intended as help functions for having the system development and the modifications under control. The following summary guideline provides a brief overview of the whole transport chain. This guideline includes the necessary steps for configuring the transport system, although these steps only have to be performed once. The concepts, configuration, and available functions and features of the transport system are explained in the following sections. Configuration steps are made up three basic tasks: 1. Configure the transport directory and TPPARAM. The transport directory (/usr/sap/trans) is created by the installation program. You have to make sure that this directory can be accessed correctly among systems within a transport group. Within the bin subdirectory, there is a global configuration file TPPARAM (transport parameter file) that must include entries for each of the R/3 systems taking part in transports. This file must be correctly configured for the transport control program tp to function properly. 2. Initialize the change and transport organizer (CTO). This is accomplished by transaction SE06 (Tools Administration Transports Installation follow up work) and is one of the first tasks to perform after the installation of the R/3 system. This transaction initializes the basic settings for the CTO, and can also be used for specifying the system change optionthat is, which objects and configuration settings can be modified or not within the system. This transaction distinguishes whether this R/3 system comes from a standard installation or from a systems or database copy. 3. Configure transport systems and routes. This configuration step is performed using transaction STMS 157
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Overview of the Complete Process of Transporting Objects from a Source System to a Target System (Tools Administration Transports Transport Management System) from client 000. The first time this transaction is called, the system creates a transport domain controller, a central system where all configuration is done and then transferred to other systems in the group. The easiest way to configure the systems landscape and transport routes is to select a standard configuration. This can be done by first entering the R/3 systems and then selecting Overview Transport routes and Configuration Standard config. In this case the TMS will request the roles of the defined systems and set up the transport layer and transport routes for each. For nonstandard configurations or complex system landscapes this process must be manually performed. In addition to these configuration tasks, it is also important to set the system change options as well as to check the system client settings. These settings define what parts of the system can be changed and recorded by the organizers. The next steps are: 4. Create a development class. The development class acts as a way to group together objects belonging to the same development project. Only objects with an appropriate development class can be transported to other systems. To be able to transport development objects, you must define a class which is not local (such as $TMP) or for test purposes (all starting with T). You should define the development class in the range allowed for customers, starting with Y or Z. 5. Create or modify an object. The process of creating a new object (a table or a report, for example) or making a customization setting, automatically asks for the creation of a change request. This request will be transportable as long as the assigned development class, the transport route, and/or the type permits it. The automatic creation of a change request is allowed by the SAP client settings. You can disable this function and the ability to make changes in the system client independent objects. However, in the rest of this chapter and other chapters, it is assumed that the client allows for changes in the repository and client independent objects. 6. Release and export the transport. Access the workbench organizer (SE09) or the customizing organizer (SE10) and find the transportable change requests that have not yet been released. Expand the folder to access the change tasks. Change requests are composed by one or more change tasks. First release the tasks and then release the change request. When the change requests are released, the system performs an export and creates several files at the operating system level. 7. Import into the target system. When the group of SAP systems share the same common transport directory, files that have been exported are directly accessed by the target system. Imports can be performed with the tp program at the operating system level by logging onto the target system as user <sid>adm, going to the /usr/sap/trans/bin directory, and performing the corresponding call to the program. For example:
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