how to create barcode in ssrs report A satellite link operating at 14 GHz has receiver feeder losses of in Software

Creator Denso QR Bar Code in Software A satellite link operating at 14 GHz has receiver feeder losses of

Example 12.4 A satellite link operating at 14 GHz has receiver feeder losses of
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1.5 dB and a free-space loss of 207 dB. The atmospheric absorption loss is 0.5 dB, and the antenna pointing loss is 0.5 dB. Depolarization losses may be neglected. Calculate the total link loss for clear-sky conditions.
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The total link loss is the sum of all the losses: [LOSSES] [FSL] 207 [RFL] 1.5 0.5 [AA] 0.5 [AML]
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209.5 dB
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12.5 System Noise It is shown in Sec. 12.3 that the receiver power in a satellite link is very small, on the order of picowatts. This by itself would be no problem because amplification could be used to bring the signal strength up to an acceptable level. However, electrical noise is always present at the input, and unless the signal is significantly greater than the noise, amplification will be of no help because it will amplify signal and noise to the same extent. In fact, the situation will be worsened by the noise added by the amplifier. The major source of electrical noise in equipment is that which arises from the random thermal motion of electrons in various resistive and active devices in the receiver. Thermal noise is also generated in the
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lossy components of antennas, and thermal-like noise is picked up by the antennas as radiation. The available noise power from a thermal noise source is given by PN kTNBN (12.14)
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Here, TN is known as the equivalent noise temperature, BN is the equivalent noise bandwidth, and k 1.38 10 23 J/K is Boltzmann s constant. With the temperature in kelvins and bandwidth in hertz, the noise power will be in watts. The noise power bandwidth is always wider than the 3-dB bandwidth determined from the amplitude-frequency response curve, and a useful rule of thumb is that the noise bandwidth is equal to 1.12 times the 3-dB bandwidth, or BN 1.12 B 3dB. The bandwidths here are in hertz (or a multiple such as MHz). The main characteristic of thermal noise is that it has a flat frequency spectrum; that is, the noise power per unit bandwidth is a constant. The noise power per unit bandwidth is termed the noise power spectral density. Denoting this by N0, then from Eq. (12.14), N0 5 PN 5 kTN J BN (12.15)
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The noise temperature is directly related to the physical temperature of the noise source but is not always equal to it. This is discussed more fully in the following sections. The noise temperatures of various sources which are connected together can be added directly to give the total noise.
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Example 12.5 An antenna has a noise temperature of 35 K and is matched into
a receiver which has a noise temperature of 100 K. Calculate (a) the noise power density and (b) the noise power for a bandwidth of 36 MHz.
Solution
(a) N0 (b) PN
(35 1.86
100) 10
1.38 36
10 106
0.067 pW
In addition to these thermal noise sources, intermodulation distortion in high-power amplifiers (see Sec. 12.7.3) can result in signal products which appear as noise and in fact is referred to as intermodulation noise. This is discussed in Sec. 12.10.
12.5.1 Antenna noise
Antennas operating in the receiving mode introduce noise into the satellite circuit. Noise therefore will be introduced by the satellite receive antenna and the ground station receive antenna. Although the physical
The Space Link
origins of the noise in either case are similar, the magnitudes of the effects differ significantly. The antenna noise can be broadly classified into two groups: noise originating from antenna losses and sky noise. Sky noise is a term used to describe the microwave radiation which is present throughout the universe and which appears to originate from matter in any form at finite temperatures. Such radiation in fact covers a wider spectrum than just the microwave spectrum. The equivalent noise temperature of the sky, as seen by an earth-station antenna, is shown in Fig. 12.2. The lower graph is for the antenna pointing directly overhead, while the upper graph is for the antenna pointing just above the horizon. The increased noise in the latter case results from the thermal radiation of the earth, and this in fact sets a lower limit of about 5 at C band and 10 at Ku band on the elevation angle which may be used with ground-based antennas. The graphs show that at the low-frequency end of the spectrum, the noise decreases with increasing frequency. Where the antenna is zenithpointing, the noise temperature falls to about 3 K at frequencies between
Figure 12.2 Irreducible noise temperature of an ideal, ground-based antenna. The antenna is assumed to have a very narrow beam without sidelobes or electrical losses. Below 1 GHz, the maximum values are for the beam pointed at the galactic poles. At higher frequencies, the maximum values are for the beam just above the horizon and the minimum values for zenith pointing. The low-noise region between 1 and 10 GHz is most amenable to application of special, low-noise antennas. (From Philip F. Panter, Communications Systems Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1972. With permission.)
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