how to create barcode in ssrs report Downlink rain-fade margin in Software

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12.9.2 Downlink rain-fade margin
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The results given by Eqs. (12.53) and (12.54) are for clear-sky conditions. Rainfall introduces attenuation by absorption and scattering of signal energy, and the absorptive attenuation introduces noise as discussed in Sec. 12.5.5. Let [A] dB represent the rain attenuation caused by absorption. The corresponding power loss ratio is A 10[A]/10, and substituting this for L in Eq. (12.29) gives the effective noise temperature of the rain as Train Ta a1 1 b A (12.58)
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Here, Ta, which takes the place of Tx in Eq. (12.29), is known as the apparent absorber temperature. It is a measured parameter which is a function of many factors including the physical temperature of the rain and the scattering effect of the rain cell on the thermal noise incident upon it (Hogg and Chu, 1975). The value of the apparent absorber temperature lies between 270 and 290 K, with measured values for North America lying close to or just below freezing (273 K). For example, the measured value given by Webber et al. (1986) is 272 K. The total sky-noise temperature is the clear-sky temperature TCS plus the rain temperature: Tsky TCS Train (12.59)
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Rainfall therefore degrades the received [C/N0] in two ways: by attenuating the carrier wave and by increasing the sky-noise temperature.
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Example 12.16
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Under clear-sky conditions, the downlink [C/N] is 20 dB, the effective noise temperature of the receiving system being 400 K. If rain attenuation exceeds 1.9 dB for 0.1 percent of the time, calculate the value below which [C/N] falls for 0.1 percent of the time. Assume Ta 280 K.
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1.9 dB attenuation is equivalent to a 1.55:1 power loss. The equivalent noise temperature of the rain is therefore Train 280 (1 1/1.55) 99.2 K
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The new system noise temperature is 400 99.2 499.2 K. The decibel increase in noise power is therefore [499.2] [400] 0.96 dB. At the same time, the carrier is reduced by 1.9 dB, and therefore, the [C/N] with 1.9-dB rain attenuation drops to 20 1.9 0.96 17.14 dB. This is the value below which [C/N] drops for 0.1 percent of the time.
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It is left as an exercise for the student to show that where the rain power attenuation A (not dB) is entirely absorptive, the downlink C/N power ratios (not dBs) are related to the clear-sky value by a N b C rain a N b aA C CS (A 1) Ta TS,CS b (12.60)
where the subscript CS is used to indicate clear-sky conditions and TS,CS is the system noise temperature under clear-sky conditions. Note that noise-to-carrier ratios, rather than carrier-to-noise ratios are required by Eq. (12.60). For low frequencies (6/4 GHz) and low rainfall rates (below about 1 mm/h), the rain attenuation is almost entirely absorptive. At higher rainfall rates, scattering becomes significant, especially at the higher frequencies. When scattering and absorption are both significant, the total attenuation must be used to calculate the reduction in carrier power and the absorptive attenuation to calculate the increase in noise temperature.
The Space Link
As discussed in Chap. 9, a minimum value of [C/N] is required for satisfactory reception. In the case of frequency modulation, the minimum value is set by the threshold level of the FM detector, and a threshold margin is normally allowed, as shown in Fig. 9.12. Sufficient margin must be allowed so that rain-induced fades do not take the [C/N] below threshold more than a specified percentage of the time, as shown in Example 12.17.
Example 12.17 In an FM satellite system, the clear-sky downlink [C/N] ratio is 17.4 dB and the FM detector threshold is 10 dB, as shown in Fig. 9.12. (a) Calculate the threshold margin at the FM detector, assuming the threshold [C/N] is determined solely by the downlink value. (b) Given that Ta 272 K and that TS,CS 544 K, calculate the percentage of time the system stays above threshold. The curve of Fig. 12.8 may be used for the downlink, and it may be assumed that the rain attenuation is entirely absorptive.
Solution (a) Since it is assumed that the overall [C/N] ratio is equal to the downlink value, the clear-sky input [C/N] to the FM detector is 17.4 dB. The threshold level for the detector is 10 dB, and therefore, the rain-fade margin is 17.4 10 7.4 dB.
(b) The rain attenuation can reduce the [C/N] to the threshold level of 10 dB (i.e., it reduces the margin to zero), which is a (C/N) power ratio of 10:1 or a downlink N/C power ratio of 1/10.
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