how to create barcode in ssrs report Figure 12.8 Typical rain attenuation curve used in Example 12.17. in Software

Printer Denso QR Bar Code in Software Figure 12.8 Typical rain attenuation curve used in Example 12.17.

Figure 12.8 Typical rain attenuation curve used in Example 12.17.
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For clear-sky conditions, [C/N]CS 17.4 dB, which gives an N/C ratio of 0.0182. Substituting these values in Eq. (12.60) gives 0.1 5 0.0182 3 aA 1 sA 2 1d 3 272 b 544
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Solving this equation for A gives A 4, or approximately 6 dB. From the curve of Fig. 12.8, the probability of exceeding the 6-dB value is 2.5 10 4, and there4 0.99975, or 99.975 percent. fore, the availability is 1 2.5 10
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For digital signals, the required [C/N0] ratio is determined by the acceptable BER, which must not be exceeded for more than a specified percentage of the time. Figure 10.17 relates the BER to the [Eb/N0] ratio, and this in turn is related to the [C/N0] by Eq. (10.24), as discussed in Sec. 10.6.4. For the downlink, the user does not have control of the satellite [EIRP], and thus the downlink equivalent of uplink power control, described in Sec. 12.9.1, cannot be used. In order to provide the rain-fade margin needed, the gain of the receiving antenna may be increased by using a larger dish and/or a receiver front end having a lower noise temperature. Both measures increase the receiver [G/T] ratio and thus increase [C/N0] as shown by Eq. (12.53).
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12.10 Combined Uplink and Downlink C/N Ratio The complete satellite circuit includes an uplink and a downlink, as sketched in Fig. 12.9a. Noise will be introduced on the uplink at the satellite receiver input. Denoting the noise power per unit bandwidth by PNU and the average carrier at the same point by PRU, the carrier-tonoise ratio on the uplink is (C/N0)U (PRU/PNU). It is important to note that power levels, and not decibels, are being used here. The carrier power at the end of the space link is shown as PR, which of course is also the received carrier power for the downlink. This is equal to times the carrier power input at the satellite, where is the system power gain from satellite input to earth-station input, as shown in Fig. 12.9a. It includes the satellite transponder and transmit antenna gains, the downlink losses, and the earth-station receive antenna gain and feeder losses. The noise at the satellite input also appears at the earth station input multiplied by , and in addition, the earth station introduces its own noise, denoted by PND. Thus the end-of-link noise is PNU PND. The C/N0 ratio for the downlink alone, not counting the PNU contribution, is PR/PND, and the combined C/N0 ratio at the ground receiver is
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(a) Combined uplink and downlink; (b) power flow diagram for (a).
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PR/( PNU PND). The power flow diagram is shown in Fig. 12.9b. The combined carrier-to-noise ratio can be determined in terms of the individual link values. To show this, it is more convenient to work with the noise-to-carrier ratios rather than the carrier-to-noise ratios, and again, these must be expressed as power ratios, not decibels. Denoting the combined noise-to-carrier ratio value by N0/C, the uplink value by (N0/C)U, and the downlink value by (N0/C)D then, N0 C PN PR PNU PND (12.61)
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PR PNU PND PR PNU PRU a N0 C b
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PR PNU PR a N0 C b
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Equation (12.61) shows that to obtain the combined value of C/N0, the reciprocals of the individual values must be added to obtain the N0/C ratio and then the reciprocal of this taken to get C/N0. Looked at in another way, the reason for this reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals method is that a single signal power is being transferred through the system, while the various noise powers, which are present are additive. Similar reasoning applies to the carrier-to-noise ratio, C/N.
Example 12.18 For a satellite circuit the individual link carrier-to-noise spectral
density ratios are: uplink 100 dBHz; downlink 87 dBHz. Calculate the combined C/N0 ratio.
Solution
N0 C Therefore, s
C N0
10 log(2.095 86.79 dBHz
10 9)
Example 12.18 illustrates the point that when one of the link C/N0 ratios is much less than the other, the combined C/N0 ratio is approximately equal to the lower (worst) one. The downlink C/N is usually (but not always) less than the uplink C/N0, and in many cases it is much less. This is true primarily because of the limited EIRP available from the satellite. Example 12.19 illustrates how BO is taken into account in the linkbudget calculations and how it affects the C/N0 ratio.
Example 12.19 A multiple carrier satellite circuit operates in the 6/4-GHz band with the following characteristics.
Uplink: Saturation flux density 1 dBK . Downlink: Satellite saturation EIRP 26.6 dBW; output BO 6 dB; free-space loss 196.7 dB; earth station G/T 40.7 dBK 1. For this example, the other losses may be ignored. Calculate the carrier-to-noise density ratios for both links and the combined value.
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