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Carrier-to-noise density ratios as a function of input back-off.
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ground stations. Although many different links are possible, the most useful ones in operation are:
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low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites LEO LEO geostationary earth orbiting (GEO) satellites GEO GEO LEO GEO
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Consider first some of the applications to GEOs. As shown in Chap. 3, the antenna angle of elevation is limited to a minimum of about 5 degrees because of noise induced from the earth. The limit of visibility as set by the minimum angle of elevation is a function of the satellite longitude and earth-station latitude and longitude as shown in Sec. 3.2. Figure 12.12 shows the situation where earth station A is beyond the range of satellite S2, a problem that can be overcome by the use of two satellites connected by an ISL. Thus, a long distance link between earth stations A and B can be achieved by this means. A more extreme example is where an intercontinental service may require a number of hops. For example a Europe-Asia circuit requires three hops (Morgan, 1999): Europe to eastern U.S.A; eastern U.S.A. to western U.S.A; western U.S.A. to Asia; and of course each hop required an uplink and a downlink. By using an ISL only one uplink and one downlink is required. Also, as will be discussed shortly, the ISL frequencies are well outside the standard uplink and downlink bands so that spectrum use is conserved. The cost of the ISL is more than offset by not having to provide the additional earth stations required by the three-hop system. The distance d for the ISL is easily calculated. From Fig. 12.13: d 2aGSO sin 2 (12.63)
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where is the longitudinal separation between satellites S1 and S2, and aGSO is the radius of the geostationary orbit [see Eq. (3.2)], equal to 42164 km. For example the western limits for the continental United States (CONUS) arc are at 55 and 136 (see Prob. 3.11). Although there are no satellites positioned exactly at these longitudes they can be used
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Angle of elevation as determined by an ISL.
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aGSO f 2
d 2
aGSO
Finding the distance d between two GEO satellites.
to get an estimate of distance d for an ISL spanning CONUS. d 2 42164 sin (136 2 55 ) 54767 km
Although this may seem large, the range from earth station to satellite is in the order of 41000 km, (Prob. 3.11) so distance involved with three uplinks and three downlinks is 246000 km! GEO satellites are often arranged in clusters at some nominal longitude. For example, there are a number of EchoStar satellites at longitude 119 W. The separation between satellites is typically about 100 km, the corresponding longitudinal separation for this distance being, from Eq. (12.63), approximately 0.136 . Because the satellites are relatively close together they are subject to the same perturbing and drift forces which simplifies positional control. Also, all satellites in the cluster are within the main lobe of the earth-station antenna. Because LEO satellites are not continuously visible from a given earth location, an intricate network of satellites is required to provide continuous coverage of any region. A typical LEO satellite network will utilize a number of orbits, with equispaced satellites in each orbit. For example, the Iridium system uses 6 orbital planes with 11 equispaced satellites in each plane, for a total of 66 satellites. Communication between two earth stations via the network will appear seamless as message handover occurs between satellites via intersatellite links. Radio frequency ISLs make use of frequencies that are highly attenuated by the atmosphere, so that interference to and from terrestrial systems using the same frequencies is avoided. Figure 4.2 shows the atmospheric absorption peaks at 22.3 GHz and 60 GHz. Table 12.3 shows the frequency bands in use:
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TABLE 12.3
ISL Frequency Bands Available bandwidth, MHz 1000 300 2250 1000 3950 5000 6000 18000 12000 5000 Designation ISL-23 ISL-24 ISL-25 ISL-32 ISL-56 ISL-60 ISL-67 ISL-125
Frequency band, GHz 22.55 23.55 24.45 24.75 25.25 27.5 32 33 54.25 58.2 59 64 65 71 116 134 170 182 185 190
SOURCE:
Morgan, 1999.
Antennas for the ISL are steerable and the beamwidths are sufficiently broad to enable a tracking signal to be acquired to maintain alignment. Table 12.4 gives some values for an ISL used in the Iridium system.
Example 12.21 Calculate the free-space loss for the ISL parameters tabulated in Table 12.4. Given that the system margin for transmission loss is 1.8 dB, calculate the received power.
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