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of the effects that this has on the B1 and B2 levels of interference are examined later in the chapter. It may be noted, however, that although the larger authorized operators will in general be able to meet the costs of technical improvements needed to offset the increased interference resulting from reduced orbital spacing, the same cannot be said for individually owned television receive-only (TVRO) installations (the home satellite dish ), and these users will have no recourse to regulatory control (Chouinard, 1984). Interference with individually owned TVRO receivers also may occur from terrestrial station transmissions in the 6/4-GHz band. Although this may be thought of as an A1 mode of interference, the fact that these home stations are considered by many broadcasting companies to be pirates means that regulatory controls to reduce interference are not applicable. Some steps that can be taken to reduce this form of interference are described in a publication by the Microwave Filter Company (1984). It has been mentioned that the Radio Regulations place limits on the energy spectral density which may be emitted by an earth station. Energy dispersal is one technique employed to redistribute the transmitted energy more evenly over the transmitted bandwidth. This principle is described in more detail later in this chapter. Intermodulation interference, briefly mentioned in Sec. 7.7.3, is a type of interference which can occur between two or more carriers using a common transponder in a satellite or a common high-power amplifier in an earth station. For all practical purposes, this type of interference can be treated as noise, as described in Sec. 12.11. 13.2 Interference between Satellite Circuits (B1 and B2 Modes) A satellite circuit may suffer the B1 and B2 modes of interference shown in Fig. 13.1 from a number of neighboring satellite circuits, the resultant effect being termed aggregate interference. Because of the difficulties of taking into account the range of variations expected in any practical aggregate, studies of aggregate interference have been quite limited, with most of the study effort going into what is termed singleentry interference studies (see Sharp, 1984a). As the name suggests, single-entry interference refers to the interference produced by a single interfering circuit on a neighboring circuit. Interference may be considered as a form of noise, and as with noise, system performance is determined by the ratio of wanted to interfering powers, in this case the wanted carrier to the interfering carrier power or C/I ratio. The single most important factor controlling interference is the radiation pattern of the earth-station antenna. Comparatively
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large-diameter reflectors can be used with earth-station antennas, and hence narrow beamwidths can be achieved. For example, a 10-m antenna at 14 GHz has a 3-dB beamwidth of about 0.15 . This is very much narrower than the 2 to 4 orbital spacing allocated to satellites. To relate the C/I ratio to the antenna radiation pattern, it is necessary first to define the geometry involved. Figure 13.2 shows the angles subtended by two satellites in geostationary orbit. The orbital separation is defined as the angle subtended at the center of the earth, known as the geocentric angle. However, from an earth station at point P the satellites would appear to subtend an angle . Angle is referred to as the topocentric angle. In all practical situations relating to satellite interference, the topocentric and geocentric angles may be assumed equal, and in fact, making this assumption leads to an overestimate of the interference (Sharp, 1983). Consider now S1 as the wanted satellite and S2 as the interfering satellite. An antenna at P will have its main beam directed at S1 and an off-axis component at angle directed at S2. Angle is the same as the topocentric angle, which as already shown may be assumed equal to the geocentric or orbital spacing angle. Therefore, when calculating the antenna sidelobe pattern, the orbital spacing angle may be used, as described in Sec. 13.2.4. Orbital spacing angles range from 2 to 4 in 0.5 intervals in the C band. In Fig. 13.3 the satellite circuit being interfered with is that from earth station A via satellite S1 to receiving station B. The B1 mode of interference can occur from satellite S2 into earth station B, and the B2 mode of interference can occur from earth station C into satellite S1. The total single-entry interference is the combined effect of these two modes. Because the satellites cannot carry very large antenna reflectors, the beamwidth is relatively wide, even for the so-called spot beams. For example, a 3.5-m antenna at 12 GHz has a beamwidth of about 0.5 ,
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