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channel through the multiple-access transponder). Circuits may be preassigned, which means they are allocated on a fixed or partially fixed basis to certain users. These circuits are therefore not available for general use. Preassignment is simple to implement but is efficient only for circuits with continuous heavy traffic. An alternative to preassignment is demand-assigned multiple access (DAMA). In this method, all circuits are available to all users and are assigned according to the demand. DAMA results in more efficient overall use of the circuits but is more costly and complicated to implement. Both FDMA and TDMA can be operated as preassigned or demand assigned systems. CDMA is a random-access system, there being no control over the timing of the access or of the frequency slots accessed. These multiple-access methods refer to the way in which a single transponder channel is utilized. A satellite carries a number of transponders, and normally each covers a different frequency channel, as shown in Fig. 7.13. This provides a form of FDMA to the whole satellite. It is also possible for transponders to operate at the same frequency but to be connected to different spot-beam antennas. These allow the satellite as a whole to be accessed by earth stations widely separated geographically but transmitting on the same frequency. This is termed frequency reuse. This method of access is referred to as space-division multiple access (SDMA). It should be kept in mind that each spot beam may itself be carrying signals in one of the other multiple-access formats. 14.2 Single Access With single access, a single modulated carrier occupies the whole of the available bandwidth of a transponder. Single-access operation is used on heavy-traffic routes and requires large earth station antennas such as the class A antenna shown in Fig. 8.7. As an example, Telesat Canada provides heavy route message facilities, with each transponder channel being capable of carrying 960 one-way voice circuits on an FDM/FM carrier, as illustrated in Fig. 14.1. The earth station employs a 30-m-diameter
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Figure 14.1 Heavy route message (frequency modulation single access). (Courtesy of Telesat Canada, 1983.)
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antenna and a parametric amplifier, which together provide a minimum [G/T ] of 37.5 dB/K. 14.3 Preassigned FDMA Frequency slots may be preassigned to analog and digital signals, and to illustrate the method, analog signals in the FDM/FM/FDMA format will be considered first. As the acronyms indicate, the signals are frequencydivision multiplexed, frequency modulated (FM), with FDMA to the satellite. In Chap. 9, FDM/FM signals are discussed. It will be recalled that the voice-frequency (telephone) signals are first SSBSC amplitude modulated onto voice carriers in order to generate the single sidebands needed for the FDM. For the purpose of illustration, each earth station will be assumed to transmit a 60-channel supergroup. Each 60-channel supergroup is then frequency modulated onto a carrier which is then upconverted to a frequency in the satellite uplink band. Figure 14.2 shows the situation for three earth stations: one in Ottawa, one in New York, and one in London. All three earth stations
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Three earth stations transmitting and receiving simultaneously through the same satellite transponder, using fixed-assignment FDMA.
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access a single satellite transponder channel simultaneously, and each communicates with both of the others. Thus it is assumed that the satellite receive and transmit antenna beams are global, encompassing all three earth stations. Each earth station transmits one uplink carrier modulated with a 60-channel supergroup and receives two similar downlink carriers. The earth station at New York is shown in more detail. One transmit chain is used, and this carries telephone traffic for both Ottawa and London. On the receive side, two receive chains must be provided, one for the Ottawa-originated carrier and one for the London-originated carrier. Each of these carriers will have a mixture of traffic, and in the demultiplexing unit, only those telephone channels intended for New York are passed through. These are remultiplexed into an FDM/FM format which is transmitted out along the terrestrial line to the New York switching office. This earth-station arrangement should be compared with that shown in Fig. 8.6. Figure 14.3 shows a hypothetical frequency assignment scheme for the hypothetical network of Fig. 14.2. Uplink carrier frequencies of 6253, 6273, and 6278 MHz are shown for illustration purposes. For the satellite transponder arrangement of Fig. 7.13, these carriers would be translated down to frequencies of 4028, 4048, and 4053 MHz (i.e., the corresponding 4-GHz-band downlink frequencies) and sent to transponder 9 of the satellite. Typically, a 60-channel FDM/FM carrier occupies 5 MHz of transponder bandwidth, including guardbands. A total frequency
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