ssrs barcode image Figure 14.3 Transponder channel assignments for the earth stations shown in Fig. 14.2. in Software

Generation QR in Software Figure 14.3 Transponder channel assignments for the earth stations shown in Fig. 14.2.

Figure 14.3 Transponder channel assignments for the earth stations shown in Fig. 14.2.
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allowance of 15 MHz is therefore required for the three stations, and each station receives all the traffic. The remainder of the transponder bandwidth may be unused, or it may be occupied by other carriers, which are not shown. As an example of preassignment, suppose that each station can transmit up to 60 voice circuits and that 40 of these are preassigned to the New York London route. If these 40 circuits are fully loaded, additional calls on the New York London route will be blocked even though there may be idle circuits on the other preassigned routes. Telesat Canada operates medium-route message facilities utilizing FDM/FM/FDMA. Figure 14.4 shows how five carriers may be used to support 168 voice channels. The earth station that carries the full load has a [G/T] of 37.5 dB/K, and the other four have [G/T] s of 28 dB/K. Preassignment also may be made on the basis of a single channel per carrier (SCPC). This refers to a single voice (or data) channel per carrier, not a transponder channel, which may in fact carry some hundreds of voice channels by this method. The carriers may be frequency modulated or phase-shift modulated, and an earth station may be capable of transmitting one or more SCPC signals simultaneously. Figure 14.5 shows the INTELSAT SCPC channeling scheme for a 36-MHz transponder. The transponder bandwidth is subdivided into 800 channels each 45-kHz wide. The 45 kHz, which includes a guardband, is required for each digitized voice channel, which utilizes quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation. The channel information
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Medium route message traffic (frequency-division multiple access, FM/FDMA). (Courtesy of Telesat Canada, 1983.)
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Channeling arrangement for Intelsat SCPC system.
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signal may be digital data or PCM voice signals (see Chap. 10). A pilot frequency is transmitted for the purpose of frequency control, and the adjacent channel slots on either side of the pilot are left vacant to avoid interference. The scheme therefore provides a total of 798 oneway channels or up to 399 full-duplex voice circuits. In duplex operation, the frequency pairs are separated by 18.045 MHz, as shown in Fig. 14.5. The frequency tolerance relative to the assigned values is within 1 kHz for the received SCPC carrier and must be within 250 Hz for the transmitted SCPC carrier (Miya, 1981). The pilot frequency is transmitted by one of the earth stations designated as a primary station. This provides a reference for automatic frequency control (AFC) (usually through the use of phase-locked loops) of the transmitter frequency synthesizers and receiver local oscillators. In the event of failure of the primary station, the pilot frequency is transmitted from a designated backup station. An important feature of the INTELSAT SCPC system is that each channel is voice-activated. This means that on a two-way telephone conversation, only one carrier is operative at any one time. Also, in long pauses between speech, the carriers are switched off. It has been estimated that for telephone calls, the one-way utilization time is 40 percent of the call duration. Using voice activation, the average number of carriers being amplified at any one time by the transponder travelingwave tube (TWT) is reduced. For a given level of intermodulation distortion (see Secs. 7.7.3 and 12.10), the TWT power output per FDMA carrier therefore can be increased. SCPC systems are widely used on lightly loaded routes, this type of service being referred to as a thin route service. It enables remote earth stations in sparsely populated areas to connect into the national telephone network in a reasonably economical way. A main earth station is used to make the connection to the telephone network, as illustrated
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Figure 14.6 Thin route message traffic (single channel per carrier, SCPC/FDMA). (Courtesy of Telesat Canada, 1983.)
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in Fig. 14.6. The Telesat Canada Thin Route Message Facilities provide up to 360 two-way circuits using PSK/SCPC (PSK phase-shift keying). The remote terminals operate with 4.6-m-diameter antennas with [G/T ] values of 19.5 or 21 dB/K. Transportable terminals are also available, one of these being shown in Fig. 14.7. This is a singlechannel station that uses a 3.6-m antenna and comes complete with a desktop electronics package which can be installed on the customers premises.
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Transportable message station. (Courtesy of Telesat Canada, 1983.)
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