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14.7.1 Reference burst
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The reference burst that marks the beginning of a frame is subdivided into time slots or channels used for various functions. These will differ in detail for different networks, but Fig. 14.13 shows some of the basic channels that are usually provided. These can be summarized as follows: Guard time (G). A guard time is necessary between bursts to prevent the bursts from overlapping. The guard time will vary from burst to burst depending on the accuracy with which the various bursts can be positioned within each frame.
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Carrier and bit-timing recovery (CBR). To perform coherent demodulation of the phase-modulated carrier, as described in Secs. 10.7 and 10.8, a coherent carrier signal must first be recovered from the burst. An unmodulated carrier wave is provided during the first part of the CBR time slot. This is used as a synchronizing signal for a local oscillator at the detector, which then produces an output coherent with the carrier wave. The carrier in the subsequent part of the CBR time slot is modulated by a known phase-change sequence which enables the bit timing to be recovered. Accurate bit timing is needed for the operation of the sample-and-hold function in the detector circuit (see Figs. 10.13 and 10.23). Carrier recovery is described in more detail in Sec. 14.7.3. Burst code word (BCW). (Also known as a unique word.) This is a binary word, a copy of which is stored at each earth station. By comparing the incoming bits in a burst with the stored version of the BCW, the receiver can detect when a group of received bits matches the BCW, and this in turn provides an accurate time reference for the burst position in the frame. A known bit sequence is also carried in the BCW, which enables the phase ambiguity associated with coherent detection to be resolved. Station identification code (SIC). This identifies the transmitting station. Figure 14.14 shows the makeup of the reference bursts used in some of the INTELSAT networks. The numbers of symbols and the corresponding time intervals allocated to the various functions are shown. In addition to the channels already described, a coordination and delay channel or CDC (sometimes referred to as the control and delay channel) is provided. This channel carries the identification number of the earth station being addressed and various codes used in connection with the acquisition and synchronization of bursts at the addressed earth station. It is also necessary for an earth station to know the propagation time delay to the satellite to implement burst acquisition and synchronization. In the INTELSAT system, the propagation delay is computed from measurements made at the reference station and transmitted to the earth station in question through the coordination and delay channel. The other channels in the INTELSAT reference burst are the following: TTY: telegraph order-wire channel, used to provide telegraph communications between earth stations. SC: service channel which carries various network protocol and alarm messages. VOW: voice-order-wire channel used to provide voice communications between earth stations. Two VOW channels are provided.
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Figure 14.14 (a) Intelsat 2-ms frame; (b) composition of the reference burst R; (c) composition of the preamble P. (QPSK modulation is used, giving 2 bits per symbol. Approximate time intervals are shown.)
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14.7.2 Preamble and postamble
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The preamble is the initial portion of a traffic burst that carries information similar to that carried in the reference burst. In some systems the channel allocations in the reference bursts and the preambles are identical. No traffic is carried in the preamble. In Fig. 14.13, the only difference between the preamble and the reference burst is that the preamble provides an orderwire (OW) channel. For the INTELSAT format shown in Fig. 14.14, the preamble differs from the reference burst in that it does not provide a CDC. Otherwise, the two are identical. As with the reference bursts, the preamble provides a carrier and bit-timing recovery channel and also a burst-code-word channel for burst-timing purposes. The burst code word in the preamble of a traffic burst is different from the burst code word in the reference bursts, which enables the two types of bursts to be identified. In certain phase detection systems, the phase detector must be allowed time to recover from one burst before the next burst is received by it. This is termed decoder quenching, and a time slot, referred to as a postamble, is allowed for this function. The postamble is shown as Q in Fig. 14.13. Many systems are designed to operate without a postamble.
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