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(a) FDMA network; (b) TDMA network.
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For the same earth-station antenna gain in each case, the decibel increase in earth station transmit power for TDMA compared with FDMA is [P]TDMA
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A 14-GHz uplink operates with transmission losses and margins totaling 212 dB and a satellite [G/T] 10 dB/K. The required uplink [Eb/N0] is 12 dB. (a) Assuming FDMA operation and an earth-station uplink antenna gain of 46 dB, calculate the earth-station transmitter power needed for transmission of a T1 baseband signal. (b) If the downlink transmission
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rate is fixed at 74 dBb/s, calculate the uplink power increase required for TDMA operation.
Solution
(a) From Sec. 10.4 the T1 bit rate is 1.544 Mb/s or [R] 12-dB value specified, Eq. (10.24) gives c C N0 d 12 62 74 dBHz
62 dBb/s.
Using the [Eb/N0]
From Eq. (12.39), [EIRP] c C N0 d 10 c G T d [LOSSES] 228.6 228.6
47.4 dBW Hence the transmitter power required is [P] 47.4 46 1.4 dBW or 1.38 W
(b) With TDMA operation the rate increase is 74 62 12 dB. All other factors being equal, the earth station [EIRP] must be increased by this amount, and hence [P] 1.4 12 13.4 dBW or 21.9 W
For small satellite business systems it is desirable to be able to operate with relatively small earth stations, which suggests that FDMA should be the mode of operation. On the other hand, TDMA permits more efficient use of the satellite transponder by eliminating the need for backoff. This suggests that it might be worthwhile to operate a hybrid system in which FDMA is the uplink mode of operation, with the individual signals converted to a time-division-multiplexed format in the transponder before being amplified by the TWTA. This would allow the transponder to be operated at saturation as in TDMA. Such a hybrid mode of operation would require the use of a signal-processing transponder as discussed in the following section. 14.8 On-Board Signal Processing for FDMA/TDM Operation As seen in the preceding section, for small earth stations carrying digital signals at relatively low data rates, there is an advantage to be gained in terms of earth station power requirements by using FDMA. On the other hand, TDMA signals make more efficient use of the transponder because back-off is not required.
Fourteen
Market studies show that what is termed customer premises services (CPS) will make up a significant portion of the satellite demand over the decade 1990 2000 (Stevenson et al., 1984). Multiplexed digital transmission will be used, most likely at the T1 rate. This bit rate provides for most of the popular services, such as voice, data, and videoconferencing, but specifically excludes standard television signals. Customer premises services is an ideal candidate for the FDMA/TDM mode of operation mentioned in the preceding section. To operate in this mode requires the use of signal-processing transponders, in which the FDMA uplink signals are converted to the TDM format for retransmission on the downlink. It also should be noted that the use of signal processing transponders decouples the uplink from the downlink. This is important because it allows the performance of each link to be optimized independently of the other. A number of signal-processing methods have been proposed. One conventional approach is illustrated in the simplified block schematic of Fig. 14.25a. Here the individual uplink carriers at the satellite are selected by frequency filters and detected in the normal manner. The baseband signals are then combined in the baseband processor, where they are converted to a time-division-multiplexed format for remodulation onto a downlink carrier. More than one downlink carrier may be provided, but only one is shown for simplicity. The disadvantages of the conventional approach are those of excessive size, weight, and power consumption, since the circuitry must be duplicated for each input carrier. The disadvantages associated with processing each carrier separately can be avoided by means of group processing, in which the input FDMA signals are demultiplexed as a group in a single processing circuit, illustrated in Fig. 14.25b. Feasibility studies are being conducted into the use of digital-type group processors, although it would appear that these may require very high speed integrated circuits (VHSICs) not presently available. A different approach to the problem of group processing has been proposed, which makes use of an analog device known as a surface acoustic wave (SAW) Fourier transformer (Atzeni et al., 1975; Hays et al., 1975; Hays and Hartmann, 1976; Maines and Paige, 1976; Nud and Otto, 1975). In its basic form, the SAW device consists of two electrodes deposited on the surface of a piezoelectric dielectric. An electrical signal applied to the input electrode sets up a SAW which induces a corresponding signal in the output electrode. In effect, the SAW device is a coupled circuit in which the coupling mechanism is the SAW. Because the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave is much lower than that of an electromagnetic wave, the SAW device exhibits useful delay characteristics. In addition, the electrodes are readily shaped to
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