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Figure 14.25 On-board signal processing for FDMA/TDM operation; (a) conventional approach; (b) group signal processing.
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provide a wide range of useful transfer characteristics. These two features, along with the fact that the device is small, rugged, and passive, make it a powerful signal-processing component. SAW devices may be used conventionally as delay lines, as bandpass, or bandstop filters, and they are the key component in a unit known as a Fourier transformer. The Fourier transformer, like any other transformer, works with input and output signals which are functions of time. The unique property of the Fourier transformer is that the output signal is a time analog of the frequency spectrum of the input signal. When the input is a group of FDMA carriers, the output in the ideal case would be an analog of the FDMA frequency spectrum. This allows the FDMA signals to be demultiplexed in real time by means of a commutator switch, which eliminates
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the need for the separate frequency filters required in the conventional analog approach. Once the signals have been separated in this way, the original modulated-carrier waveforms may be recovered through the use of SAW inverse Fourier transformers. In a practical transformer, continuous operation can only be achieved by repetitive cycling of the transformation process. As a result, the output is periodic, and the observation interval has to be chosen to correspond to the desired spectral interval. Also, the periodic interval over which transformation takes place results in a broadening of the output pulses which represent the FDMA spectra. Repetitive operation of the Fourier transformer at a rate equal to the data bit rate will produce a suitable repetitive output. The relative positions of the output pulses will remain unchanged, fixed by the frequencies of the FDMA carriers. The PSK modulation on the individual FDMA carriers appears in the phase of the carriers within each output pulse. Thus the FDMA carriers have been converted to a pulsed TDM signal. Further signal processing is required before this can be retransmitted as a TDM signal. Figure 14.26 shows the output obtained from a practical Fourier transformer for various input signals. For Fig. 14.26a the input was seven continuous-wave (CW) signals applied in succession. The output is seen to be pulses corresponding to the line spectra for these waves. The broadening of the lines is a result of the finite time gate over which the Fourier transformer operates. It is important to note that the horizontal axis in Fig. 14.26 is a time axis on which the equivalent frequency points are indicated.
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Figure 14.26 Prototype chirp transform of (a) seven successive CW input signals and (b) three simultaneous input signals, including CW and pulsed RF. 200 ns/div; 31.5 MHz./s chirp rate. (Courtesy of Hays and Hartmann, 1976. Copyright 1976, IEEE.)
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Figure 14.26b shows the output obtained with three simultaneous inputs, two CW waves and one pulsed carrier wave. Again, the output contains two pulses corresponding to the CW signals and a time function which has the shape of the spectrum for the pulsed wave (Hays and Hartmann, 1976). A detailed account of SAW devices will be found in Morgan (1985) and in the IEEE Proceedings (1976). 14.9 Satellite-Switched TDMA More efficient utilization of satellites in the geostationary orbit can be achieved through the use of antenna spot beams. The use of spot beams is also referred to as space-division multiplexing. Further improvements can be realized by switching the antenna interconnections in synchronism with the TDMA frame rate, this being known as satellite-switched TDMA (SS/TDMA). Figure 14.27a shows in simplified form the SS/TDMA concept (Scarcella and Abbott, 1983). Three antenna beams are used, each beam serving two earth stations. A 3 3 satellite switch matrix is shown. This is the key component that permits the antenna interconnections to be made on a switched basis. A switch mode is a connectivity arrangement. With three beams, six modes would be required for full interconnectivity, as shown in Fig. 14.27b, and in general with N beams, N! modes are required for full interconnectivity. Full interconnectivity means that the signals carried in each beam are transferred to each of the other beams at some time in the switching sequence. This includes the loopback connection, where signals are returned along the same beam, enabling intercommunications between stations within a beam. Of course, the uplink and downlink microwave frequencies are different. Because of beam isolation, one frequency can be used for all uplinks, and a different frequency for all downlinks (e.g., 14 and 12 GHz in the Ku band). To simplify the satellite switch design, the switching is carried out at the intermediate frequency that is common to uplinks and downlinks. The basic block schematic for the 3 3 system is shown in Fig. 14.28. A mode pattern is a repetitive sequence of satellite switch modes, also referred to as SS/TDMA frames. Successive SS/TDMA frames need not be identical, since there is some redundancy between modes. For example, in Fig. 14.27b, beam A interconnects with beam B in modes 3 and 5, and thus not all modes need be transmitted during each SS/TDMA frame. However, for full interconnectivity, the mode pattern must contain all modes. All stations within a beam receive all the TDM frames transmitted in the downlink beam. Each frame is a normal TDMA frame consisting
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