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(a) Satellite switching of three spot beams; (b) connectivities or modes.
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of bursts, addressed to different stations in general. As mentioned, successive frames may originate from different transmitting stations and therefore have different burst formats. The receiving station in a beam recovers the bursts addressed to it in each frame. The two basic types of switch matrix are the crossbar matrix and the rearrangeable network. The crossbar matrix is easily configured for the broadcast mode, in which one station transmits to all stations. The
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Switch matrix in the R.F. link.
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broadcast mode with the rearrangeable network-type switch is more complex, and this can be a deciding factor in favor of the crossbar matrix (Watt, 1986). The schematic for a 3 3 crossbar matrix is shown in Fig. 14.29, which also shows input beam B connected in the broadcast mode. The switching elements may be ferrites, diodes, or transistors. The dual-gate FET appears to offer significant advantages over the other types and is considered by some to be the most promising technology (Scarcella and Abbott, 1983). Figure 14.30 shows how a 3 3 matrix switch may be used to reroute traffic. Each of the ground stations U, V, and W accesses a separate antenna on the satellite and carries traffic destined for the downlink
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Figure 14.29 3 3 crossbar matrix switch, showing input B connected in the broadcast mode.
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XV2 ZV2 YV2 XV1 ZV1 YV1
Satellite 3x3 switch matrix
Ground stations
Frame
X XU
Beam Y
ZU ZV ZW ZU ZV ZW
Beam Z
Switch control
Input
ZU1 YU1 XV1 ZV1 YW1 XW1 XU2 ZU1 YV2 XV1 ZW2 YW1 YU2 XU2 ZV2 YV2 XW2 ZW2
XU1 YV1 ZW1
XW1 YU1 ZV1 XU1 YV1 ZW1
XV1 YW1 ZU1 XW1 YU1 ZV1 XU1 YV1 ZW1
Output
Traffic from earth stations U, V, W rerouted into designated beams X, Y, Z. The lower diagrams show part of the switching sequence.
beams X, Y, and Z. The switch is controlled from a ground control station, and the switching sequence for the frame labeled with subscript 1 is shown in the lower part of the figure. The schematic for a 4 4 matrix switch as used on the European Olympus satellite is shown in Fig. 14.31 (Watt, 1986). This arrangement is derived from the crossbar matrix. It permits broadcast mode operation, but does not allow more than one input to be connected to one
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(a) 4 4 switch matrix; (b) circuit diagram of redundant SP4T switch element. (Courtesy of Watt, 1986; reprinted with permission of IEE, London.)
output. Diodes are used as switching elements, and as shown, diode quads are used which provide redundancy against diode failure. It is clear that satellite-switched TDMA adds to the complexity of the on-board equipment and to the synchronization requirements. Use of multiple antenna beams can also be used for space-division multiple access (SDMA). Both beam switching, and the use of phased adaptive arrays (see Sec. 6.18) have been studied for mobile applications.
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An analysis and comparison of antenna beam switching and phased adaptive arrays will be found in Zaharov (2001). 14.10 Code-Division Multiple Access With CDMA the individual carriers may be present simultaneously within the same rf bandwidth, but each carrier carries a unique code waveform (in addition to the information signal) that allows it to be separated from all the others at the receiver. The carrier is modulated in the normal way by the information waveform and then is further modulated by the code waveform to spread the spectrum over the available rf bandwidth. Many of the key properties of CDMA rely on this spectrum spreading, and the systems employing CDMA are also known as spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA). Care must be taken not to confuse the SS here with that for satellite switched (SS/TDMA) used in the Sec. 14.9. CDMA can be used with analog and digital signals (see Dixon, 1984), but only digital systems will be described here. For illustration purposes, a polar non-return-to-zero (NRZ) waveform denoted by p(t) (see Fig. 10.2) will be used for the information signal, and BPSK modulation (see Sec. 10.6.1) will be assumed. The code waveform c(t) is also a polar NRZ signal, as sketched in Fig. 14.32. What would be called bits in an information waveform are called chips for the code waveform, and in most practical systems the chip rate is much greater than the information bit rate. The pulses (chips) in the code waveform vary randomly between V and V. The randomness is an essential feature of spread-spectrum systems, and more will be said about this shortly. The code signal may be applied as modulation in exactly the same way as the information signal so that the BPSK signal carries both the information signal p(t) and the code signal c(t). This method is referred to as direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS/SS). Other techniques are also used to spread the spectrum, such as frequency hopping, but the discussion here will be limited to the DS/SS method.
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