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Example 14.8
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(14.52)
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(14.53)
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The code waveform in a CDMA system spreads the carriers over the full 36 MHz bandwidth of the channel, and the rolloff factor for the filtering is 0.4. The information bit rate is 64 kb/s, and the system uses BPSK. Calculate the processing gain in decibels. Given that the BER must not exceed 5 10 , give an estimate of the maximum number of channels that can access the system.
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BIF 1 36 25.7 106 1.4 10 chips/s
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Hence the processing gain is Gp 25.7 64 401.56 From Fig. 10.18 for Pe 10 , [Eb/N0] of 9.12, and from Eq. (14.53), K 1
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9.6 dB approximately. This is a power ratio
401.56 9.12
> 62 (rounded down)
The throughput efficiency is defined as the ratio of the total number of bits per unit time that can be transmitted with CDMA to the total number of bits per unit time that could be transmitted with single access and no spreading. For K accesses as determined earlier, each at bit rate Rb, the total bits per unit time is KRb. A single access could utilize the full bandwidth, and hence its transmission rate as determined
Satellite Access
by Eq. (10.15) is RT BIF 1 (14.54)
This is the same as the chip rate, and hence the throughput is KRb RT KRb Rch K Gp Using the values obtained in Example 14.8 gives a throughput of 0.15, or 15 percent. This should be compared with the frame efficiency for TDMA (see Example 14.4), where it is seen that the throughput efficiency can exceed 90 percent. CDMA offers several advantages for satellite networking, especially where VSAT-type terminals are involved. These are: 1. The beamwidth for VSAT antennas is comparatively broad and therefore could be subject to interference from adjacent satellites. The interference rejection properties of CDMA through spreading are of considerable help here. 2. Multipath interference, for example, that resulting from reflections, can be avoided provided the time delay of the reflected signal is greater than a chip period and the receiver locks onto the direct wave. 3. Synchronization between stations in the system is not required (unlike TDMA, where synchronization is a critical feature of the system). This means that a station can access the system at any time. 4. Degradation of the system (reduction in Eb/N0) is gradual with an increase in number of users. Thus additional traffic could be accommodated if some reduction in performance was acceptable. The main disadvantage is the low throughput efficiency. (14.55)
14.11 Problems and Exercises
14.1. Explain what is meant by a single access in relation to a satellite communications network. Give an example of the type of traffic route where single access would be used.
Fourteen
14.2. Distinguish between preassigned and demand-assigned traffic in relation to a satellite communications network. 14.3. Explain what is meant by FDMA, and show how this differs from FDM.
14.4. Explain what the abbreviation SCPC stands for. Explain in detail the operation of a preassigned SCPC network. 14.5. Explain what is meant by thin route service. What type of satellite access is most suited for this type of service 14.6. Briefly describe the ways in which demand assignment may be carried out in an FDMA network. 14.7. Explain in detail the operation of the Spade system of demand assignment. What is the function of the common signaling channel 14.8. Explain what is meant by power-limited and bandwidth-limited operation as applied to an FDMA network. In an FDMA scheme the carriers utilize equal powers and equal bandwidths, the bandwidth in each case being 5 MHz. The transponder bandwidth is 36 MHz. The saturation EIRP for the downlink is 34 dBW, and an output backoff of 6 dB is employed. The downlink losses are 201 dB, and the destination earth station has a G/T ratio of 35 dBK 1. Determine the [C/N] value assuming this is set by single carrier operation. Determine also the number of carriers which can access the system, and state, with reasons, whether the system is power limited or bandwidth limited. 14.9. A satellite transponder has a saturation EIRP of 25 dBW and a bandwidth of 27 MHz. The transponder resources are shared equally by a number of FDMA carriers, each of bandwidth 3 MHz, and each requiring a minimum EIRP of 12 dBW. If 7 dB output backoff is required, determine the number of carriers that can be accommodated. 14.10. In some situations it is convenient to work in terms of the carrier-tonoise temperature. Show that [C/T] [C/N0] [k]. The downlink losses for a satellite circuit are 196 dB. The earth station [G/T] ratio is 35 dB/K, and the received [C/T] ratio is 138 dBW/K. Calculate the satellite [EIRP]. 14.11. The earth-station receiver in a satellite downlink has an FM detector threshold level of 10 dB and operates with a 3-dB threshold margin. The emphasis improvement figure is 4 dB, and the noise-weighting improvement figure is 2.5 dB. The required [S/N] at the receiver output is 46 dB. Calculate the receiver processing gain. Explain how the processing gain determines the IF bandwidth. 14.12. A 252-channel FM/FDM telephony carrier is transmitted on the downlink specified in Prob. 14.10. The peak/rms ratio factor is 10 dB, and the baseband bandwidth extends from 12 to 1052 kHz. The voice-channel bandwidth
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