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is 3.1 kHz. Calculate the peak deviation, and hence, using Carson s rule, calculate the IF bandwidth. 14.13. Given that the IF bandwidth for a 252-channel FM/FDM telephony carrier is 7.52 MHz and that the required [C/N] ratio at the earth-station receiver is 13 dB, calculate (a) the [C/T] ratio and (b) the satellite [EIRP] required if the total losses amount to 200 dB and the earth-station [G/T] ratio is 37.5 dB/K. 14.14. Determine how many carriers can access an 80-MHz transponder in the FDMA mode, given that each carrier requires a bandwidth of 6 MHz, allowing for 6.5-dB output backoff. Compare this number with the number of carriers possible without backoff. 14.15. (a) Analog television transmissions may be classified as full-transponder or half-transponder transmissions. State what this means in terms of transponder access. (b) A composite TV signal (video plus audio) has a top baseband frequency of 6.8 MHz. Determine for a 36-MHz transponder the peak frequency deviation limit set by (1) half-transponder and (2) full transponder transmission. 14.16. Describe the general operating principles of a TDMA network. Show how the transmission bit rate is related to the input bit rate. 14.17. Explain the need for a reference burst in a TDMA system. 14.18. Explain the function of the preamble in a TDMA traffic burst. Describe and compare the channels carried in a preamble with those carried in a reference burst. 14.19. What is the function of (a) the burst-code word and (b) the carrier and bit-timing recovery channel in a TDMA burst 14.20. Explain what is meant by (a) initial acquisition and (b) burst synchronization in a TDMA network. (c) The nominal range to a geostationary satellite is 42,000 km. Using the station-keeping tolerances stated in Sec. 7.4 in connection with Fig. 7.10, determine the variation expected in the propagation delay. 14.21. (a) Define and explain what is meant by frame efficiency in relation to TDMA operation. (b) In a TDMA network the reference burst and the preamble each requires 560 bits, and the nominal guard interval between bursts is equivalent to 120 bits. Given that there are eight traffic bursts and one reference burst per frame and the total frame length is equivalent to 40,800 bits, calculate the frame efficiency. 14.22. Given that the frame period is 2 ms and the voice-channel bit rate is 64 kb/s, calculate the equivalent number of voice channels that can be carried by the TDMA network specified in Prob. 14.21.
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14.23. Calculate the frame efficiency for the CSC shown in Fig. 14.19. 14.24. (a) Explain why the frame period in a TDMA system is normally chosen to be an integer multiple of 125 s. (b) Referring to Fig. 14.20 for the INTELSAT preassigned frame format, show that there is no break in the timing interval for sample 18 when this is transferred to a burst. 14.25. Show that, all other factors being equal, the ratio of uplink power to bit rate is the same for FDMA and TDMA. In a TDMA system the preamble consists of the following slots, assigned in terms of number of bits: bit timing recovery 304; unique word 48; station identification channel 8; order wire 64. The guard slot is 120 bits, the frame reference burst is identical to the preamble, and the burst traffic is 8192 bits. Given that the frame accommodates 8 traffic bursts, calculate the frame efficiency. The traffic is preassigned PCM voice channels for which the bit rate is 64 kb/s, and the satellite transmission rate is nominally 60 Mb/s. Calculate the number of voice channels which can be carried. 14.26. In comparing design proposals for multiple access, the two following possibilities were considered: (1) uplink FDMA with downlink TDM and (2) uplink TDMA with downlink TDM. The incoming baseband signal is at 1.544 Mb/s in each case and the following table shows values in decilogs:
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Uplink [Eb/N0] [G/T] [LOSSES] [EIRP] Transmit Antenna Gain [GT] 12 10 212 45.8 Downlink 12 19.5 210 48
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Determine (a) the downlink TDM bit rate and (b) the transmit power required at the uplink earth station for each proposal. 14.27. A TDMA network utilizes QPSK modulation and has the following symbol allocations: guard slot 32; carrier and bit timing recovery 180; burst code word (unique word) 24; station identification channel 8; order wire 32; management channel (reference bursts only) 12; service channel (traffic bursts only) 8. The total number of traffic symbols per frame is 115,010, and a frame consists of two reference bursts and 14 traffic bursts. The frame period is 2 ms. The input consists of PCM channels each with a bit rate of 64 kb/s. Calculate the frame efficiency and the number of voice channels that can be accommodated. 14.28. For the network specified in Prob. 14.27 the BER must be at most 10 5. Given that the receiving earth-station [G/T] value is 30 decilogs and total losses are 200 dB, calculate the satellite [EIRP] required. 14.29. Discuss briefly how demand assignment may be implemented in a TDMA network. What is the advantage of TDMA over FDMA in this respect
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