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14.30. Define and explain what is meant by the terms telephone load activity factor and digital speech interpolation. How is advantage taken of the load activity factor in implementing digital speech interpolation 14.31. Define and explain the terms connect clip and freeze-out used in connection with digital speech interpolation. 14.32. Describe the principles of operation of a SPEC system, and state how this compares with digital speech interpolation. 14.33. Determine the bit rate that can be transmitted through a 36-MHz transponder, assuming a rolloff factor of 0.2 and QPSK modulation. 14.34. On a satellite downlink, the [C/N0] ratio is 86 dBHz and an [Eb/N0] of 12 dB is required at the earth station. Calculate the maximum bit rate that can be transmitted. 14.35. FDMA is used for uplink access in a satellite digital network, with each earth station transmitting at the T1 bit rate of 1.544 Mb/s. Calculate (a) the uplink [C/N0] ratio required to provide a [Eb/N0] 14 dB ratio at the satellite and (b) the earth station [EIRP] needed to realize the [C/N0] value. The satellite [G/T] value is 8 dB/K, and total uplink losses amount to 210 dB. 14.36. In the satellite network of Prob. 14.35, the downlink bit rate is limited to a maximum of 74.1 dBb/s, with the satellite TWT operating at saturation. A 5-dB output backoff is required to reduce intermodulation products to an acceptable level. Calculate the number of earth stations that can access the satellite on the uplink. 14.37. The [EIRP] of each earth station in an FDMA network is 47 dBW, and the input data are at the T1 bit rate with 7/8 FEC added. The downlink bit rate is limited to a maximum of 60 Mb/s with 6-dB output backoff applied. Compare the [EIRP] needed for the earth stations in a TDMA network utilizing the same transponder. 14.38. (a) Describe the general features of an on-board signal processing transponder that would allow a network to operate with FDMA uplinks and a TDMA downlink. (b) In such a network, the overall BER must not exceed 10 5. Calculate the maximum permissible BER of each link, assuming that each link contributes equally to the overall value. 14.39. Explain what is meant by full interconnectivity in connection with satellite switched TDMA. With four beams, how many switch modes would be required for full interconnectivity 14.40. Identify all the redundant modes in Fig. 14.27. 14.41. The shift register in an m-sequence generator has 7 stages. Calculate the number of binary 1s and 0s. The code is used to generate a NRZ polar
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waveform at levels 1 V and 1 V. Calculate the dc offset and the carrier suppression in decibels that can be achieved when BPSK is used. 14.42. The shift register in an m-sequence generator has 10 stages. Calculate the length of the m-sequences. Determine the prime factors for N and, hence, the total number of maximal length sequences that can be produced. 14.43. As shown in Sec. 14.10.2, an m-sequence generator having a 3-stage shift register is capable of generating a total of 2 maximal sequences, and Fig. 14.34 shows one of these. Draw the corresponding circuit for the other sequence, and the waveform. 14.44. Draw accurately to scale the autocorrelation function over one complete cycle for the waveform shown in Fig. 14.34. Assume V 1 V and Tch 1 ms. 14.45. Draw accurately to scale the autocorrelation function over one complete cycle for the waveform determined in Prob. 14.43. Assume V 1 V, and Tch 1 ms. 14.46. Describe in your own words how signal acquisition and tracking are achieved in a DS/SS system. 14.47. An m-sequence generator having a 3-stage shift register is capable of generating a total of 2 maximal sequences. Neatly sketch the cross-correlation function for the two m-sequences. 14.48. Explain the principle behind spectrum spreading and despreading and how this is used to minimize interference in a CDMA system. 14.49. The IF bandwidth for a CDMA system is 3 MHz, the rolloff factor for the filter being 1. The information bit rate is 2.4 kb/s, and an [Eb/N0] of 11 dB is required for each channel accessing the CDMA system. Calculate the maximum number of accesses permitted. 14.50. Determine the throughput efficiency for the system in Prob. 14.49. 14.51. Show that when K is large such that the first term, unity, on the right hand side of Eq. (14.53) can be neglected, the throughput efficiency is independent of the processing gain. Hence, plot the throughput efficiency as a function of [Eb/N0] for the range 7 to 11 dB.
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