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15.2 Bandwidth Bandwidth is a key concept in any telecommunications network. Originally, the word bandwidth was used to define a range of frequencies and it applied mainly to analog circuits and signals, see, for example Sec. 9.6.2. Digital signals also require frequency bandwidth, as shown in Sec. 10.5, and here the frequency bandwidth is directly proportional to the bit rate. For example, as shown by Eq. (10.13), under certain conditions the bandwidth of a T1 signal is equal numerically to the bit rate. With broadband signals it is common practice to state the bandwidth as a bit rate. The term wideband is also encountered in telecommunications networks, for example the bandwidth at the input to a satellite receiver is wideband, as described in Sec. 7.7.1. Although wideband and broadband would appear to be similar in meaning, each are used in quite specific contexts, wideband referring to the frequency range of signals and systems, and broadband as a bit rate as encountered in networks. 15.3 Network Basics The topology of a network refers to the way in which the network devices are connected. For example, a bus is where the connections are strung out in a line. A star is where a number of connections radiate out from a hub. A ring is where the connection forms a ring, starting and ending at the same point, and the network devices are connected as spurs to the ring. A node is where a number of connections meet at a common point within the network. Two types of nodes are encountered, terminal nodes and communicating nodes (see, e.g., Walrand, 1991). A terminal node, as the name suggests is where terminal equipment such as computers and telephones, connect into the network. Communicating nodes are nodes within the network where various switching and routing functions are carried out. Nodes in general are complex structures, and in order to ensure the smooth flow of information through the node, the equipment at the node must operate to well defined rules, or what is referred to as a protocol. The overall protocol for a node is structured in layers where each layer has its own protocol (i.e., a set of rules) that is independent of the protocol in other layers. Figure 15.1 shows how users A and B might communicate through a three-layer protocol. Each layer interfaces with the layers immediately adjacent, above and below. It is assumed that the information to be sent from A to B is in binary form. This may be a bit stream as generated, for example, by pulse code modulation for voice (see Sec. 10.3), or it could be bits stored in a digital file such as an email message. Originally digital networks in the context used here were separate from the telephone network and the information to be transferred was called data,
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Layer 1
Physical Link
Network layers.
since it was mostly computer generated. However, as mentioned in the introduction, present day networks carry voice, data, video, and image type signals, all in digital form. Layer 3 interfaces with user A and may, for example, rearrange the bits into packets. There has to be interface control information exchanged between user A and layer 3, but once the message information has been transferred to layer 3, the packet arrangement in layer 3 does not depend on the user A. Layer 3 also interfaces with layer 2. Again, some interface control information is required to ensure a smooth transfer of the message information, now in packets in this example. Layer 2 might, for example, add more bits to the message to provide an address, or perhaps some form of error control, but this can be done without reference to layer 3. Layer 2 interfaces with layer 1, which is always known as the physical layer in network literature. The protocol in the physical layer takes care of such matters as specifying the type of connectors to be used, the type of modulation to be employed, and the nature of the physical link. In the case of satellites the physical link will be the equipment and properties of the uplink and downlink. In Figure 15.1 dotted connections are shown between peer layers, each layer on user A s side is connected to the corresponding layer on user B s side. This is a virtual connection not a physical connection. The only physical connection is that through layer 1. Peer layers have to exchange information to ensure that the layer protocol is being followed, but such information is only of use to the two peer layers.
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