ssrs barcode image For example, at a speed of 30 Mbps the payload bandwidth is approximately 27 Mbps. in Software

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For example, at a speed of 30 Mbps the payload bandwidth is approximately 27 Mbps.
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Although it is possible for all the cells to be assigned to a single channel, it is much more likely that the cells will be distributed over many channels, that is, a number of signals will be multiplexed into the ATM transmission. This is one of the strengths of ATM, the ability to accommodate multiple signals, each requiring different bandwidths in general. The bandwidth used by a signal can be calculated from knowledge of the cell distribution. In practice cells may be transmitted in frames. Although the cells are asynchronous (that is, not necessarily distributed periodically over the frames), the frames themselves are transmitted synchronously, and in what is termed the synchronous transmission module-1 (STM-1), used for ATM, 8000 frames are transmitted per second (see Mackenzie 1998). If one cell per frame is assigned to one user, and since each cell carries 384 payload bits, the corresponding bandwidth is: Bpayload 384 F (15.2)
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where F is the number of frames per second. For example using the value F 8000 frames/s, the payload bandwidth for one cell per frame is: Bpayload 384 8000
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3.072 Mbps The flexibility of ATM arises because a cell may be sent only once every nth frame, or more than one cell per frame may be sent. Suppose for example a user cell is sent once every 48th frame, and the frame rate is 8000 frames/s then the corresponding payload bandwidth would be: 3.072 48 0.064 Mbps 64 kbps As shown by Eq. (10.6) this is the bit rate for a single PCM signal. If more than one cell per frame is allocated to a user, say C cells per frame then the corresponding payload bandwidth is BC Bpayload 384 F C C
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There is of course a limit to the number of cells that can fit in a frame. If S is the speed of the link in bits/s, as before, and F the number of frames/s, then the bits per frame is S/F. Each cell has 424 bits (the header
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bits must be included here), and hence maximum number of cells per frame is Cmax S 424 F (15.3)
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Substituting this for C in the BC equation and simplifying gives: BWC max 384 S 424 (15.4)
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This of course is just the Eq. 15.1 arrived at earlier for the maximum payload bandwidth for a single user making use of all the cells. Voice, television, and videoconferencing all require a CBR service (essentially a fixed bandwidth). These signals are sensitive to variations in cell delay, so the cells for these services have to be spaced at regular intervals. Other services such as email and file transfer are not sensitive to variations in cell delay, and cells can be interspersed as space permits. This is called VBR service. The use of ATM for CBR and VBR is illustrated in Fig. 15.5.
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Continuous bit rate (CBR) voice cells
Variable bit rate (VBR) Data (bursty) cells
Figure. 15.5
The use of ATM for CBR and VBR.
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TABLE 15.1
ATM Service Classes Quality of service parameter This class is used for emulating circuit switching. The cell rate is constant with time, and applications are sensitive to cell-delay variation. Telephone traffic, videoconferencing, television are all examples of CBR transmissions. Traffic can be sent at a variable rate, which depends on the availability of user information. Statistical multiplexing* is used to optimize network resources. Multimedia is an example of VBR-NRT transmission. Similar to VBR NRT, but designed for applications that are sensitive to cell delay. Application examples are voice with speech activity detection and interactive compressed video. Provides rate-based flow control, the rate depending on the cell congestion present in the network. Examples of use are file transfer and email. A catch all class, widely used for TCP/IP (see Sec. 15.6)
Service class Constant bit rate (CBR)
Variable bit rate non real time (VBR NRT)
Variable bit rate real time (VBR RT)
Available bit rate (ABR)
Unspecified bit rate (UBR)
NOTES: With statistical multiplexing the sum of the peak input rates exceeds the capacity of the link, but the assumption is made that sources are statistically independent and are unlikely to send peak rates at the same time. SOURCE: With minor modifications from Web ProForum Tutorials, The International Engineering Consortium, http://www.iec.org.
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